Direct Instruction: An Overview of the Oldest Teaching Approach - Essay Sample

Paper Type:  Essay
Pages:  7
Wordcount:  1690 Words
Date:  2023-05-14


Direct instruction is considered as the oldest teaching approach. The method is passive and does not encourage explorations through discussions, workshops, seminars, and case studies, among other engaging learning activities (Luke, 2014). According to Epple & Dudley-Marling (2019), direct instruction is the standard used teaching method. Engelmann launched the learning method in 1970 as an instructional approach that encompassed explicit and synthetic instruction. Cadette et al. (2016) argue direct instruction approach proves that it is the most effective teaching method for struggling learners. The direct instruction method encourages the use of lesson plans choral responding, content repetition, fast pacing, wait for time application, the grouping of learners per their ability and mastery of content (Epple & Dudley-Marling, 2019). Johnson (n.d) refers to the practices as academic teaching malpractice. The use of direct instruction restricts the learners to explore their knowledge potentials. The method continually gives learners low-level learning and no room to develop high cognitive skills. Luke (2014) states that Learners who require reading skills and practice are given list time possible for voluntary reading and no time to practice; therefore no opportunities for them to develop the need skills of reading.

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According to Cadette et al. (2016), the direct instruction method is appropriate for low-level learning but not for high-level education. The technique is discouraged in a regular classroom, but it is highly recommended amongst exceptional learners, for example, learners with autism. According to Craigen & Math (2016), in 1968-1978, in the United States, diverse learning approaches were put under review in the project Follow Through Program (PFT). French (2015) states that students were subjected to the PFT assessment annually, and learners were tested in areas such as cognitive behavior, basics skills, and productive behavior. After data were compared for ten years, results showed that direct instruction scored significantly compared to other teaching methods in all the three-measured areas. According to French (2015), students who were receiving the direct instruction program scored best compared to others who used other teaching methods. Despite constant research up-to-date, the no different process has proved a widespread success as direct instruction among low performing students.

According to Binder & Watkins (2013), studies conducted by Engelmann and Wesley show that when direct instruction is well applied to learners, it can improve learners' performance as well as effective behaviours. According to Binder & Watkins (2013), the National Institute for Direct Instruction (NIFDI) explained how effective behavior such as self-esteem could be gained. Besides, effective practices can be achieved if learners are guided to mastering lessons designed by minimal consistent learning with well-prescribed teaching methods. This approach helps reduced misinterpretation an, in return, accelerate language development is achieved. Eppley & Dudley-Marling (2019) state that direct instruction is considered a success in teaching, but it ignores the learner's prior knowledge they bring in class and student individuality. The direct instruction approach has no means to allow learners to discuss prior knowledge of a topic. For example, in an English class, most of the words taught are random. The vocabulary learned in one lesson is not repeated in another next level.

McMullen & Madelaine (2014) explain that the direct instruction strategy is strong on memorization of words, and it does not nature cognitive development that allows learners to synthesis learned knowledge with the goal of understanding. According to Luke (2014), the direct instruction method has unique elements that forester vocabulary acquisition and learning but fall short in areas such as word retention and long term cognitive comprehension and thinking elements that are primary inconsistent language development.

Flipped Classrooms

DeLozier & Rhodes (2017), argues that due to witnessing changes in the internet and technological advancement, Demographics, and economic climate, the education system is challenged to adopt new treading mechanism that meets student 21st-century demands. In the process of examining diverse models, the flipped classroom model is invented. According to McLean, Attardi, Faden & Goldszmidt (2016), a flipped classroom is an instructional approach that involves integrated learning that focuses on student involvement. In a flipped classroom, lectures are assigned outside the school, and the classroom periods are dedicated to a variety of learning inputs. DeLozier & Rhodes (2017) explain that a flipped classroom defined by the course structure. The instructional content is prerecorded and given to learners as homework, and the purpose of this approach is to allow the instructor more time to have personal engagements with each learner. During the classroom period, the time is spent on dancing ideas, working on problems, and participating in collaborative learning.

According to McLean, et al. (2016), the flipped classroom approach is student-centred that is student are prepared earlier of the following classroom content through videos and other online methods which they explore before class and use most of their class time class discussion and other activities. According to O'Flaherty & Phillips (2015), the flipped class can be adopted in elementary schools and in higher education. In the elementary school grades, multimedia lectures are prerecorded and given to learners as homework. This allows the learners to view the recorded content at their own pace. When it comes to class time, the learners have time to have a personal engagement with the teacher. One on one interaction with the student allows the teacher an opportunity to learn the different students in class and their strengths and weakness. In higher education, the flipped class is also applicable. However, the in-class activities change the higher education flip class focus on knowledge application allowing the instructor to identify the student errors in thinking (O'Flaherty & Phillips, 2015).

According to Danker (2015), the flipped classroom phenomenon is not new; it has been in existence in traditional learning. Today, however, the flipped classroom approach is more clarified and improved to stand on its own as an instructional approach. Alvarez (2011) explains that the flipped classroom has changed what traditional teacher-led instruction or the class content, to out of class activity, which was homework, was. What was homework is now taking place in a classroom as an assigned activity. The flipped classroom has also fostered student learning ownership by completing the preparation work, and at the same time, students are left to be more active and interactive in-class activities. According to Danker (2015), the flipped classroom has many advantages that include allowing learners to work at their own time pace allowing them room for flexibility as they engage in multiple activities. It also allows students to brainstorm and ask a question; therefore, learning does not come from teachers only. The flipped classroom approach also gives learners more responsibility in education. Students are in charge of knowledge and mastery of content. The flipped class groom leaners to be versatile in addressing the 21st-century skill. For example, they master the application of technology in learning and, at the same time, learn the importance of teamwork, among other skills.

Kinesthetic Learning

According to Vaishnav & Chirayu (2013), kinesthetic learning is a teaching and learning approach that demands student physically interacts with the environment. In a traditional teaching setting, the teacher is expected to talk in class while the learners listen with minimal interruptions while taking notes. Scholars, however, have been actively researching whether a kinesthetic approach was applicable in a class setting. Many educators focus on student and their ability to learn grade content. As a result, teachers often adapt multiple teaching methods to suit different learners and their needs. According to Young, Sun, & Gilber (2017), different types of learners enjoy different teaching methods. Visual learners have a high preference for the use of graphs, symbols, and charts during learning. The auditory learners, they are comfortable learning in traditional classroom they learn better by listening to the instructor. Other learners prefer the use of text. They have a high preference for books reading and note writing. The last groups are kinesthetic learners who acquire learning through physical stimulation. Young, Sun, & Gilber (2017) state explain that the kinesthetic approach is suitable for learners with low attention spans in class. The kinesthetic approach requires student active in class; therefore, the approach help reduces boredom. In a computer class, most of the lecture topics are theoretical and have fewer activities. Often it is challenging for many learners who refer to the kinesthetic learning approach.

The kinesthetic learning approach is commonly practiced in lower grades. Kinesthetic learning is collective among children because children's desire to learn is best captivated by the use of physical activities. When a child enrolls in kindergarten, they have a high preference in kinesthetic learning, when a child reaches third grade, they are more into visual learning. Children in the elementary level adopt the auditory learning approach. According to Young, Sun, & Gilber (2017), Statistics show adults select different learning strategies. Visual learners take up 30% auditory learners take up 25% while the majority of adults show preference in kinesthetic learning with a 45% presentation. Kinesthetic learning remains popular in lower grades and list utilized in higher education more so in science subjects. Mobley & Fisher (2014) state that the kinesthetic learning method in higher education dropped to zero as a learner's transition from secondary to collages. Therefore, the kinesthetic gap in higher education needs to be filled by adopting kinesthetic learning methods across all fields.

McGuire (2017) stated that body activities activate the human brain. Studies have shown that improvement in semantic, verbal fluency develops after one engages in an exercise program. A student who has deficits in sensory integration is likely to improve following kinesthetic activity. Research also shows that children learn better if their classroom is integrated with physical activities. Most traditional classrooms demand the student to pay attention in class, and as a result, students quickly get bored losing their focus. According to McGuire (2017), the student's attention span in a classroom is 15 minutes on average. To help student release build-up tense energy during a lecture, movement, and active learning are advised to keep the learning going. Cognitive kinesthetic, which is a combination of physical activity and class learning, is adapted to help learners acquire knowledge while still active.

Differentiated Instruction

Ismajli & Imami-Morina (2018) explain differentiated instruction as a teaching pedagogy that allows variation in information presentation, content, assessment, and meet the needs of every classroom learner. Parsons, Dodman & Burrowbridge, (2013) state, students in any learning setting are different in the manner in which they acquire knowledge, language profic...

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