Game-centered approaches were made popular in the 1980s when former practitioners Rod Thorpe, David Bunker, and Len Almond initiated the research process. This movement was established as a result of enhancing the teaching experience to gain profound knowledge of games in a wider context( Harvey, Cope, & Jones, 2016). Furthermore, they also believed that it could improve the performance of students with minimal technical expertise. The main aim for this method of game teaching was to act as an alternative approach for a more comprehensive outlook towards the notion of games. The learning process was used to address the various needs associated with the learners. In turn, this would serve as a representative form in which the learners would be able to appreciate the game. Nevertheless, tactical awareness will also be enhanced for the learners to make important decisions regarding their problem solving among other factors. This paper aims to examine how game-centered approaches can be used to facilitate the performance of games. Furthermore, it will also look at how these approaches can be applied to various activities to develop the type of sport practiced.
In most cases, when transitioning to a game-centered approach, the pedagogical content knowledge is required for the successful learning environment. For instance, 'getting the game right,' is one of the factors that assist in the learning process (Harvey, Cope, & Jones, 2016). This process often involves observing how the game is played and equipping the learners with profound skills and knowledge. Giving the learners the necessary instructions is often associated with various components such as skillful and progressive measurements. As such, learners must willingly be able to work independently to provide solutions for the problems encountered. Also, it is through this process that most learners can come to terms with practitioners' beliefs together with their actions and behaviors.
Questioning is usually represented as one of the central learning intervention tools in game-centered approaches. As such, at times it may be hard for teachers and coaches to adopt the use of questionnaires to evaluate their teaching methods (Harvey, Cope, & Jones, 2016). For instance, when they understand how to use questions as intervention tools, it will be regarded as questions which are based on low-level comprehension or recall. In other words, it takes on a unique approach in comparison to how open-ended or divergent questions are used. In general, it enables practitioners to develop their tactical awareness and critical thinking.
Skillful questioning can often empower learners for them to become responsible in their own learning experience and acquire profound knowledge. In most cases, curiosity can be generated in a wider context with an increased urge to find solutions to the problems that are experienced by the practitioners (Harvey, Cope, & Jones, 2016). When using different methods of questioning, the practitioners can be able to promote physical education as a result of the learners' achievements. This kind of concept is termed as being "physically literate." Also, the use of effective questioning also tends to associate itself with the national standards of coaching. This may include a wide variety of applications such as standards 5, which talks about the development of teaching and communication skills. Furthermore, it can also be applied to standards six which illustrate the development of sports-related skills as well as tactics.
When using questioning methods in game-centered approaches, it is best to apply them regarding authentic teaching techniques or coaching situations. For instance, in net/wall game, the students are required to construct badminton "team," whereby participation is in the form of singles activity (Cushion & Harvey, 2016; Harvey, Cope, & Jones, 2016). The game is often referred as bonus badminton which primarily focuses on the presented problem within the placement. Two separate teams will be formed for each player to participate. Furthermore, these teams will consist of two or three players. Each of the players will participate in the court on at a time. The court is usually separated into seven sections. There are two ways in which a team can win in the sections or zones. First, a mini-game can be won by getting three points. On the other hand, an outright winner can be hit in either of the zones.
During the completion of a single mini-game by either of the two winning ways, players are often required to rotate. As such, a player is usually sent off as a result of losing the last mini-game. The player who won the last mini-game remains on the court (Harvey, Cope, & Jones, 2016; Miller, 2015). However, if the same player encounters a win in the following game, they will rotate while at the same time the other players stay on the court. These other players are often required to stay on the court not surpassing a maximum of two mini-games. The net/wall game can be used as a context in which the first two questioning methods underlie. These include the debate of ideas and GROW model. These two methods consist of a four-step framework in which students can be capable of receiving guidance through a provided list of generic questions.
Through the application of questioning in game-centered approaches, practitioners can be able to acquire profound knowledge regarding the importance of empowerment in students. Furthermore, achievement can be made by the practitioner regarding the skills acquired from the learning process. In most cases, these particular methods used in questioning facilitate the way in which information can be easily recalled. Thus, one can be able to solve problems in a more clear and precise way through co-constructing knowledge and appreciating the work that others are doing.
Cushion, C., & Harvey, S. (2016). Implementing Game-Centered Approaches: An Alternative Vision for Coach Education. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 87(S1), S35.
Harvey, S., Cope, E., & Jones, R. (2016). Developing questioning in game-centered approaches. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 87(3), 28-35.
Miller, A. (2015). Games centered approaches in teaching children & adolescents: Systematic review of associated student outcomes. Journal of teaching in physical education, 34(1), 36-58.
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