Zika Virus: Mosquito-Borne Threat to People - Essay Sample

Paper Type:  Essay
Pages:  7
Wordcount:  1812 Words
Date:  2023-03-09


The virus ZIKA of the Flavivirus genus and the Flaviviridae family contains up to 53 virus species, which are said to be transmitted by mosquito bites. (B.-H. Song et al. / Journal of Neuroimmunology 308 (2017)The spread of zika

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Zika virus to the people is transmitted mainly through an insect bite from a mosquito which, is a carrier. The mosquito that passes the Zika virus is the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) (Jeffrey R Powell 2018). A person who has been infected with the ZIKV will have the virus circulating in their blood, particularly during 1st week of infection. A virus-free insect (mosquito) can also be infected if it bites a virus-infected patient when it is still in the blood. However, if the then infected mosquito lives for a long time with the virus, the virus multiplies into the salivary gland where the insect can pass on the virus to another person through a bite. Also, people who are not sick of the virus but their blood is infected can still pass the virus to the mosquito that bites them. The zika virus can also be passed to the baby by an expectant mother during the period of pregnancy. Also, through unprotected sexual acts, the virus can be passed to another partner if one of the partner's blood is infected with the virus even if he/she is not ill. The virus is also spread through transfusion of blood and blood components. (Song, Yun, Woolley & Lee, 2017).

Who Gets Zika?

Anybody who resides in any area with Zika risk or is a traveler to zika risk-prone areas and is free from zika is likely to get the virus. Also, any person who engages in unprotected sexual acts with any person who is believed to have contracted the virus or travels and lives in areas with the virus can be infected. For the risk areas map of zika (Icheku & Icheku, 2016).

The Global Origin and Spread of Zika Virus

The following chart describes the timelines of origin and the spread of the virus since when it was discovered. Roughly 70 years to date (Mary Kay Kindhauser et al., 2017)

  • 1947-Some scientists researching yellow fever realized a virus in the rhesus monkey in the Zika forest (Uganda)
  • 1948: Discovered virus from Aedes africanus mosquito in Uganda, Zika forest.
  • 1952: Tanzania and Uganda, the first case of human reported
  • The 1960s-80s: Nigeria; at equatorial Africa, Zika detected in monkeys and mosquitoes
  • The 1960s-80s: found Zika virus in the Asian equatorial countries including Indonesia, India, Pakistan, and Malaysia
  • 2007: the virus spread from Asia and Africa (Ustjanauskas, Harris & Schwartz, 2014).
  • 2012: two different lineages of the virus identified by researchers, an Asian and an African
  • 2013-14: Zika outbursts in the New Caledonia (Cook Islands) and the France region
  • March 2, 2015: some infection reported in Brazil where it had rash skin characteristics, in north-eastern states
  • Oct. 22: Zika confirmed (Colombia)
  • Nov 2015-Jan 2016: reported cases in El Salvador, Suriname, Paraguay, French, Venezuela, Guiana, Mexico, Martinique, Guyana, Puerto Ecuador, Rico, Bolivia, Barbados, Panama, Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Nicaragua.
  • Feb. 2: U.S.A transmission of first Zika; local researchers say likely transmitted via sexual acts.
  • February. 18: Aruba and Bonaire added among the affected territories by the CDC
  • February. 23: Trinidad, Marshall Islands and Tobago added to the affected territories by the CDC totaling to 34
  • Feb. 27: France reported the first case of the ZIKV transmitted sexually.
  • March 19: Cuba added to active outbreaks territories by CDC
  • March 22: Dominica added to intense outbreaks areas by CDC
  • April 1: Federated States of Micronesia and Kosrae added. Total goes to 40
  • April 4: Fiji added making total to 41
  • April 18: Belize added to active outbreak countries
  • April 25: Canada; confirms the first case of sexually transmitted Zika
  • May 4: Panama: 4 cases of microcephaly tied to Zika confirmed
  • May 6: Spain reports the first case related to the ZIKV characterized by defects to the fetus's brain.
  • May 12: Grenada added by CDC
  • May 20: WHO confirms zika outbreak in Cape Verde
  • May 26: Argentina added by CDC as one of the territories,
  • June 14: El Salvador; first case confirmed
  • June 30: Anguilla added to countries and territories with active outbreaks by the CDC
  • July 14: CDC adds Saint Eustatius
  • July 26: 8 cases of babies detected in Honduras.
  • July 27: Paraguay; first case reported.
  • July 29: Florida reports the first case of zika in the US continent.
  • Aug. 2: Turks, Caicos Antigua, and Barbuda added by CDC to the active outbreak's countries
  • Aug. 11: the Cayman Islands, case confirmed.
  • Aug. 25: The United States Bahamas added to active outbreak territories by the CDC
  • Aug. 27-29: Singapore, first case confirmed, Zika transmitted locally
  • Aug. 30: Singapore; cases Confirmed rise to 82. Expectant women or those about to conceive advised not to travel to the affected areas of the state.
  • Sept. 3: Malaysia; reports of the first case
  • Sept. 5: Philippines; first case confirmed, locally transmitted.
  • Sept. 10: Singapore; Zika cases rose to 239 locally transmitted
  • Sept. 13: Thailand reports to have recorded 200 cases of Zika since January
  • Sept. 26: St. Kitts and Nevis added by CDC bringing the tally to 59
  • Oct. 27: Myanmar; zika virus, the first case reported.
  • Nov. 21: Montserrat added to active outbreaks territories raising the total to 62

World Health Organization, U.S. Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, (Reuters, Rabeneck, Martines, Reagan-Steiner, Ermias, Estetter & Gary, 2017)

Epidemiological Determinants and Risk Factors Associated With The Outbreak

Epidemiology can be described according to the national institute on deafness and other communication disorders (NIDCD) as a branch of medical science that determines all the many factors contributing to the occurrence and presence of a disease disorder. It also explains how many people are affected by said disease. (NICD, 2011)

After the disease was detected in Uganda in 1947, a similar virus was a letter detected in Nigeria from 1968-1975, and the humans tested were found to be containing the virus-neutralizing antibodies. Also, from 1951, henceforth to the year 1981, the virus has been reported in several African countries like Tanzania, Egypt, Sierra Leone, Central African Republic, Gabon, and later to countries from other continents like Asia. These Asian countries were India, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, the Philippines, and Indonesia.

A mosquito of the Aedes genus-group infected with the virus transmits the virus. After the virus-carrying mosquito bites, the disease usually appears and shows some symptoms following an incubation period of up to 3-12 days (Rapid risk assessment: Zika virus infection outbreak, French Polynesia. 2019). In characteristic cases, with the modest disease, the symptoms appear strongly. They include headache, myalgia and arthralgia, non-purulent conjunctivitis, maculopapular rash, fever, enema in the legs, and less frequently, retro-orbital pain anorexia, diarrhea, abdominal pain or vomiting. The signs may last for 4-7 days, and symptoms like neurological and autoimmune complications are infrequent and have only been recognized in the French Polynesia epidemic.

According to the All the journal of infectious disease of 2015-2016, a test was done, and it was found that the Zika virus is transmitted sexually via organ contact with an infected person. A further study also showed that the virus was also transmitted through house contacts and, most likely, if homes had open unscreened doors and windows.

Sexual Transmission Risk

Apart from the transmission from mosquito and climatic conditions, the Zika virus can also be communicated sexually. According to research done by the New England journal of medicine, it was found that the zika virus can persist through the body fluid semen hence making it easily transmitted through sexual contact and mostly from men to women (World Health Organization. 2016). However, the virus is said not to be transmitted through other human fluids like vaginal secretions or saliva, making it difficult to transmit from women to men. The virus is also easily passed through oral, vaginal, sharing of sex toys, and also anal sex.

Blood Transfusion Risk

According to the U.S Food and drugs administration, from the newly revised regulations of blood testing of the donated blood and other blood components for the likelihood of the Zika virus. The risk that the Zika causes to the blood supply is not very clear. There have been a lot of cases in Brazil linked to the transfusion of platelets (typically used to treat hemophiliacs or persons undergoing cancer chemotherapy), but such occurrence has not been reported anywhere else.

Regional Risk

As of July 2019, according to the (WHO), 87 countries and territories had been reported have had evidence of autochthonous transmission of the mosquito-borne ZIKV distributed across 4 out of the 6 World Health Organization identified Areas (S.E Asia, Region of the Americas, pacific west and African Region). There has been a rise in the cases of transmission of the virus among the Americans in the year 2016 and immediately dropped in 2017 and 2018, respectively. The zika virus has never been reported only in Chile, Uruguay, and Canada.

A further report from WHO reported that the continued infection of the ZIKV had caused a risk of the Guillain-Barre Syndrome and outcomes of expectancy, which include the risk to stillbirth, preterm birth, and fetal death.

The Route Transmission of Zika Virus

The first zika case infection that was reportedly acquired outside the Americas, it happened to a traveler in 2012 May, where he got the infection from Indonesia. Since that case, two similar cases have been reported subsequently in 2013, in 2014, 5 cases, 3 in 2015, and another 18 in 2016. This made a total of 29 reported cases. Asia (18), Africa (1), and ten in the Pacific. Thirteen cases occurred among females, and Sixteen cases occurred among males. One of the women, during the period of exposure, was in the 2nd trimester of expectancy, and she surprisingly conceived a non-infected infant. Four cases were reported among migrant workers, fifteen among tourists, three missionary workers, three travelers visiting relatives and friends, two business travelers, one case to an expatriate and one military personnel. Twenty-two patients were managed as outpatients. The patient's diagnosis was made at GeoSentinel sites. In the Middle East (1 case), North America (6 cases), Asia (8 cases), 12 cases in Western Europe, and Australia/New Zealand (2 cases). (L H Chen 2018)

Intrauterine and Intrapartum Transmission

The motherly infection of the ZIKV has been associated with various infant outcomes and fetal abnormalities, which include visual and hearing deficits and brain abnormalities (Martines RB et al. 2015 Rep 2016); however, the upsetting effects following effects of pregnancy on maternal cases been reported lately. A similar case of the intrapartum transmission was reported, but the mechanism is not known precisely. (Besnard et al. 2014). ZIKA has been realized in vaginal secretions (Penot P et al. 2017), and female to male transmission sexually has been confirmed. There is also the belief that transmission, especially vertical, can happen on newborn infants via the contact with mucosal membranes with the blood with the virus and vaginal secretions during the process of birth.

Sexual Transmission

In 2008, an American scientist was reported to have contracted possible sexual transmission of the Zika virus six days after coming back to his home-based country from Senegal, a region that had reported the presence of the ZIKV. An America scientist also developed some similar symptoms to those of the ZIKA, and some four days later, a test on his wife...

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Zika Virus: Mosquito-Borne Threat to People - Essay Sample. (2023, Mar 09). Retrieved from https://proessays.net/essays/zika-virus-mosquito-borne-threat-to-people-essay-sample

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