In many instances, animal secretion has always been used in offering some medication to various ailments, for example, cancer and hypertension. Snake venom is an epitome of such animal secretion that is currently used in the treatment of cancer which has become a common disease among the aging people in many parts of the world. Many ongoing pieces of research are currently being carried out to find out the capability of using snake venom in the treatment of cancer (Yang et al., 2010). The components of snake venom are one of the primary reasons why it has been found suitable for the treatment of the cancer diseases. For instance, the protein component in the snake venom is found to the key factor that may hinder the growth of cancer cells in the human body. Besides, the protein peptides components, there are other segments of snake that has been found to very useful in helping to cure the cancer disease. The performing of clinical trials in creatures, other than human beings, is faced with a lot of challenges which has led to the slowing of the accessibility of venom produced malignancy drugs. However, scientists have been eager on testing these medications. Snake venom is capable of not harming solid cells when acting on a malignancy which gives it leverage over the common medicines like chemotherapy. Chemotherapy can destroy quickly normal cells like hair and mucous layer cells found in the throat and mouth leading to unpleasant reactions. It is believed that the medications extracted from venom based proteins could be enough to aim a protein-protein communication which is needed during tumor development. Therefore, this paper highlights how critical snake venom can be useful in helping to manage cancer in human beings. It also explores how the components of snake venom are capable of managing cancer as well as various components of a snake.
Components of Snake Venom
Based on the findings by researchers it has been found that most of the snake components such as the peptides always have a higher affinity together with higher actions on cell and cell segments. It has been found that snakes venoms are always mostly cytotoxic as compared to any common cell. In addition to the above-mentioned facts, snake venom has been found to have numerous therapeutic actions which often make them be a very attractive option in the management of cancer disease. Snake venom is an attractive alternative in the creation of anticancer agents since it's considered to have the ability to carry more toxins when compared to other organisms. The use of current technology in screening systems has made it possible to extract and know the therapeutic agent needed in the snake obtained from hazardous biotoxins like venom from various snakes thus indicating a possibility of combating cancer. The increasing interest in studying molecular mechanisms has contributed a lot in the extraction of snake venom(Yang et al., 2010)
Components of snake venoms
Snake venom is made up of carbohydrates, enzymes, peptides, minerals, and proteins with low molecular mass with specified biological and chemical activities. The components of snake venom are believed to treat thrombosis, arthritis, pain, cardiovascular disorders, multiple sclerosis, inflammatory diseases and neuromuscular disorders. Snake venom also contains nerve growth factors, neurotoxins, cardiotoxins, cytotoxins and inorganic cations like sodium, zinc among others. Some of the components that have been isolated in snake venoms are cytotoxins CT1, CT2 and CT3, salmosin, agrettin, albolabrin, hyaluronidase, L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO), cholinesterase, proteolytic enzymes, arginine ester hydrolase, thrombin and thrombin-like enzymes, collagenase, phospholipase, phosphodiesterase, acetylcholinesterase, RNase, DNase, 5- Nucleotidase, polypeptides and many more showing a possibility of their application in the managing of various types of cancer. Some researchers have also conducted clinical trials to assess the action of snake venoms on tumor cell cultures and have managed to reach either phase one or phase two of their trials.
How could Snake Venom Help Fight Cancer?
Using venom in the treatment of cancer is not a new thought; though his method lacked investigative confirmation, Huachansu, in an attempt to treat cancer using conventional solutions, used venom that had been discharged from a Bufo frog's skin. The Fred Hutchinson Cancer Center in Seattle provides more proof of the use of venom to treat diseases. James Olson with his colleagues discovered that a venom component from Israeli yellow scorpion known as chlorotoxin might be able to tie tumor cells. After this finding, Olson's laboratory has been taking a look at venoms for the possibility of developing sedates of various diseases with their primary focus being on proteins known as knottins.
The effectiveness of snake venom depends on the site of injection; the amount administered, age, sex, size and also general health. Research has discovered that snake venom lowers blood pressures with most of the snake venom trial deaths being due to hypotension and shock. Rattlesnakes and other new world crotalids venoms are believed to alter blood cells, coagulation mechanism cardiac and pulmonary dynamics and resistance of blood vessels. The infusion of snake venoms in regards to tumors in patients could be very dangerous. There needs to be a protein which conveys these proteins into the diseased cells. Nanoparticles are considered safe in the conveyance of these particles into cells since they are protected.
Cancer is usually characterized by metastasis, an uncontrolled division of cells, transformation of cells and angiogenesis. Many anticancer agents target the induction of apoptosis. Integrin, isolated from viperid snake venom, aids in cell growth, homeostasis, tissue organization, cell migration and inflammatory response making it be of focus in the development of drugs used in the treatment of cancer. ACTX-6 snake venom isolated from Agkistrodon acutus has been found to be capable of inducing cell apoptosis. The scholars discovered that reactive oxygen species(ROS) was the principal agent involved in apoptosis as it was generated by the oxidation of L- amino acids by ACTX-8 which translocates Bax and Bad. Bad then bounds to Bcl-xl to substitute Bak enabling both the activated Bak and Bax to release cytochrome C which mediates cell apoptosis. Apoptosis is believed to control the size of the tumor and the number of tumor cells.
Another scholar isolated LAAO from Bothrops leucurus (Bl-LAAO). He reported that the Bl-LAAO biochemically affected cytotoxicity and functioning of platelets. Its cytotoxicity was seen in stomach markers for cancer MKN-45, adenocarcinoma HUTU, human fibroblasts, LL-24 and colorectal RKO cell lines. Based on the findings, it was concluded that B.leucurus venom was cytotoxin which acts by generating hydrogen peroxide which eventually leads to cell death. An advancement of snake venom was also done on king cobra, Ophiophagus Hannah. The venom isolated was L-AAO which showed cytotoxic effects on fibrosarcoma, stomach cancer, murine melanoma and colorectal cancer. L-AAO was able to inhibit proliferation of cells in by 74%.
Research has been undertaken on cytotoxin from Chinese cobra (Naja naja atra) venom-induced in rabbits, and plasma levels of the cytotoxin analyzed using biotin-avidin ELISA. Through ion exchange chromatography and HPLC purification, scholars were able to obtain a deadly cardiotoxic-cytotoxic protein from Naja kaouthia. Studies on cytotoxicity further showed the inhibition of cell proliferation depending on the dosage and time of administration in both human leukemia U937 and K562 cells. Other authors were able to obtain venom from Indian Naja naja through ion exchange chromatography and discovered that the faction 32 was responsible for cytotoxicity and cardiotoxicity. NN-32 had cytotoxic effects on EAC cells, showed a reduction of a tumour regarding volume and weight and an increment in the time the inoculated EAC mouse survived. NN-32 was able to achieve anticancer activity via apoptogenic- antioxidant manner. Lectin (BjcuL) isolated from Bothrops jararacussu venom, was examined to establish its effects on adhesion on ovarian cancer, breast cancer, bladder carcinoma, leukaemia, glioblastoma and bovine endothelial cells as well as the viability of these cell lines. It was discovered that BjcuL inhibited the growth of some tumour and endothelial cell lines. Researchers further, isolated a protein known as Okinawa Habu apoxin protein-1(OHAP-1) from lethal Okinawa Habu venom(Feldin, 2003). They discovered that OHAP-1 was capable of apoptosis induction in some glioma cells. Their study went into details of determining how induction of apoptosis was achieved by using DNA flow cytometry, TUNEL assay and DNA gel electrophoresis.
From the research, they found out that apoptosis was due to ROS produced and a P53 protein. Amir et al. investigated Naja Naja Oxiana venom in human colorectal tumor cells. Colon cancer is believed to be due to the lack of balance between cell death and growth. Therapies which could trigger apoptosis in the colorectal cells are essential in compacting colon cancer from developing making apoptosis a critical strategy in colon cancer treatment. Venom from Naja Naja Oxiana is believed to induce apoptosis through changing of calcium ions and releasing cytochrome C from the mitochondrion by the use of capase-3.
Disintegrins such as contrortrostatin purified from Agkistrodon contortrix venom is believed to inhibit cells from interacting with surrounding tissues leading to reduced cell invasiveness and motility. Snake venom can act by depositing fibrin around tumors forming a protective barrier which in turn reduces progression of a tumor. Some metastatic tumors may form fibrin deposits which aid in spreading of tumors. Ancrod, snake venom, can in turn counter this effect since it produces a decriminalized leading to a decreased spread of a tumor. Secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA2) obtained from both Macrovipera lebetina and Cerastes cerastes possess both antiangiogenic and antitumor properties by acting on integrins av and a5v1. sPLA2, isolated from Daboia russelii siamensis venom is known to have cytotoxic effects and inhibit the migration of cells in melanoma cells of the human skin. In BALB/c mouse models, it is observed to show a reduction in the colonization of B16F10 melanoma cells in lung tumors. Its anticoagulant property can inhibit the progression of recurrent thrombosis which can cause death in cancer patients. Cystatin snake venom component is known to reduce metastasis and invasion of tumors.
Components of snake venom are absorbed to through their combination with nanoparticles. Immunoconjugates can be synthesized from cobra venom, and they appear to be more specific to cancer cells. It can also be used as a potent analgesic to reduce pain that is usually accompanied by cancer.Snake venom segments fundamentally restrain cell multiplication and advance cell demise. Components of activity include: expanding calcium particle flood, prompting cytochrome C discharge, expanding or diminishing the statement of proteins that control cell cycle, delivering cell layer harm, hostile to platelet activity forestalling fibrin arrangement, averting thrombin actuated metastasis.Others are instigating malignancy cell apoptosis subsequently controlling tumor measure, coordinate lethality and free radical age, restraining nucleic corrosive amalgamation along these lines stifling cell multiplication, diminishing the articulation and movement of grid metalloproteinases, repressing integrins accordingly avoiding relocation and intrusion of growth cells, and ant angiogenesis. Cytotoxicity of snake venoms is identified with adjustments in cell digestion with a unique impact on tumor cells when contrasted...
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