Healthcare evaluation is a very critical and imperative process in the overall health sector. Healthcare evaluation alludes the assessment of patients needs and how those needs are fulfilled either through underlying health systems or nursing facilities. Along these lines, these processes are fulfilled through patients health status checks. Furthermore, the evaluation process necessitates a thorough physical examination that follows specific historical analysis. Subsequently, individual patients historical analysis serves as a guide because it could be a continuum of how the patient might be feeling.
Kirkpatrick four-level model
One of the principal criteria used in the healthcare evaluation is the Kirkpatrick four-level model. This model encompasses four steps namely: reaction, learning, behavior, and results. Reaction refers to how well the learners like and are engaged in the learning process. The engagement process may cause the one teaching or training to put their focus on mostly the method of delivery but also the content. When a message being passed on has low relevance to the one listening, their attitude towards the subject will be negative in nature. Also when the method of delivery does not capture the interest of the listener, the negative attitude will suffice. Both content and delivery are quite valuable and need to be properly considered.
In learning the trainer seeks to gauge how much the learner has acquired regarding skills and knowledge. It is basically what the student has captured from the content taught. In behavior, this refers to the changes seen in the performance of the student when performing the job. It mostly relates to the capability of the student from the new set of skills taught. The results are then the byproducts of skills learned. This process could be witnessed in many forms like reduction regarding cost, increase the speed of performing a task or even improvement in quality.
Transferring learning to behavior
However, there is a need for transferring knowledge to behavior. Many argue that learning does not capture the full meaning intended in this model. It is viewed as an analytical process which everyone can easily relate. Taking the analogy of weight loss, many people want to lose weight and know the practices and patterns needed to achieve that.
However, most of them choose not to. It is always easier said than done. Many times people have been told to do a particular thing but being human, we dont. We tend to dislike things that disturb and interrupt the nature of what we are used to and are comfortable doing. People will look for alternatives that are convenient even if they are not entirely practical.
Behavior, with no doubt, captures the purpose intended. When we think of behavior what is being alluded to is execution. It is only in the implementation of the practices, and a new set of skills learned can there be a significant change witnessed. That is when people learn. It is not enough to know what is required to be done but also making that effort counts when you want to show that you are learning. Behavior relates to the physical part of our beings. Therefore, if progress or learning is to be deduced, it can only be done so in a change of behavior.
Critical analysis of the evaluation practice
Critical analysis has been done of the Kirkpatricks model. This analysis emanates from its grown popularity throughout the years. Many have argued that the model focuses on training only and thus making it difficult to be applied in certain areas. The method could prove ineffective in other sectors which would be a waste of resources. Also, the model oversimplifies the effectiveness of the training.
The model also has very casual relationships between one level and another. The principle of beneficence states that it is ethical to help other people achieve their legitimate interests. As a result, this comprehension can be used to analyze the effectiveness of the model in the light of how it benefits other sectors. With its focus being on training, it would have less significance and relevance to other areas with its lack of input of relevant factors of influence.
Evaluating improvement and implementation of health
Evaluation and application of health have the following results. First, it will give motivation for undertaking an assessment. This motivation arises from the need for getting good quality for the patients. Be it the healthcare system or the nursing facility; evaluation can ensure that the patient can acquire the necessary components for their recovery. The knowledge of quality will help by reducing the number of resources regarding money but mostly time used in the assisting the patient.
Another result of this is that people are made aware of the solutions and the pitfalls ahead wich will also create efficient use of time as problems are easily handled. Also when a person is made psychologically aware of what is going to happen, they can be more keen and alert when doing that particular activity.
Finally, one can make improvements in the evaluation. One of the ways which this could happen is when the results of the assessment are analyzed. From the analysis, one can see the relevance of the results and also pinpoint what other information could also be needed, and hence necessary adjustments are made to the evaluation.
Some of the challenges of the evaluation include the ADAGU. A stands for aim. This position directly relates to the purpose of the assessment which creates an emphasis on the information needed and the type of questions to be answered in the evaluation. D stands for description which are the details or the context forming the evaluation. These details are the blueprint of the aims of the assessment (Ovetveit, 2014).
A stands for attribution whereby one should be able to answer the causes of the findings accurately. One should be able also to give an explanation for what has been deduced. G stands for generalization where one seeks to know whether the evaluation would get similar results. U is for usefulness where one tries to find other fields where the assessment proves feasible and how the results of that the evaluation will be able to help the users in that area.
Acceptable survey response rate
According to Keller, the fair survey response rate is 40%. For research to be termed viable, there has to be a substantial amount of reaction. This research will form the basis of its reliability. This reaction is needed before setting up of structures and introducing evaluation. It saves a lot of resources that would have otherwise been used for the onset of the project. A random experiment was conducted where five of the Anderson Cancer Centre Clinic units which had a 100% response rate were used and for acceptable psychometric properties to be used required a 40% response rate.
Qualitative research: introducing focus groups
The introduction of focus groups in the field of health and medicine is quite beneficial and has various advantages appertained to it. First, there is little room for discrimination against the illiterate as their contribution has the same weight as someone who knows how to read and write. Also, there is a lot of encouragement in helping people participate in the interview including those who do not want to be interviewed or generally from the individual who do not know what to say. This development expands the response, making the research very productive and qualitative and hence more sound findings are derived.
In implementing focus groups, there is a need to have knowledge of some concepts. It involves knowing the composition of the groups for the research. It is recommended that prior meditation of the focus groups be taken so as to get accurate and meaningful findings from the research. Also knowing how to run and manage these groups is mandatory which strikes as a result of failure to learn how to run a team will lead to its break up, and thus no information can be collected.
Analysis of the groups is also required. From the report raises significant deductions which will be useful information being added to the field of health and medicine. This information could also be in other fields. This form of research relies on the interaction and the exchange of knowledge and experiences of members of the group.
People can give thoughts and ideas and comment on various thoughts put out by some of the members of the group. Members of the group are encouraged to talk to one another. It enables a researcher to have an understanding of the subject from various people. A researcher can gather these findings and be able to come up with a solution or an outcome that will favor most if not all the people that make up the focus group.
Even as a member one can benefit from the thoughts put across by the rest of the team. This exchange of information encourages one who does not want to speak to speak up. Such conversations spark a lot of interest as the researcher notes down the responses.
Recommendation for evaluation of health care improvement
Evaluation is very crucial in the explaining and giving an understanding of why certain initiatives have not worked. They give a detailed reason as to why the approach from the initiatives could not provide the same or even similar results as predicted earlier which stems from the numerous times the evaluations cannot keep up with the maturity of the initiatives. Be that as it may, getting them at per proves to be immensely difficult. Along these lines, there arises inadequate efforts which have no concrete basis being set (Parry, 2013)
Evaluation needs to put into consideration the activities laid down so that the participants can follow and the changes that they are required to make and compare them against the outcomes as earlier predicted. In context with evaluation, Peter Rossi came up with a theory called the iron law of the assessment. It explains that the narrow focus which is usually the backbone of evaluation may not come to full effectiveness when efforts are made to implement it widely. In light of this comprehension, it becomes apparent that the diverse nature of circumstances necessitates much bigger adjustments and amendments so that it could fit the situation, for others the evaluation may fail to be applied efficiently. This efficiency is one of the limitations of evaluation which researchers are trying to curb.
The evaluation also goes through some phase which includes the innovation phase, the testing phase, and the scale up and spread phase. In the innovation phase, details appertaining the evaluation are fully described. This innovation further includes the various concepts behind the assessment and the context in which it was made and developed. It also gives information on how some organizations have applied the assessment and the outcomes from the organizations.
The second phase is the testing phase which gives answers to whether the evaluation works or needs amendment. In the organizations, the staff is taught how to conduct themselves in such a way that the evaluation is tailored to their activities.
In the third phase which is scaled up and spread, it involves adopting and applying models that have a higher belief of degree that it would work and where there is also high applicability. The process should then occur in areas that do not need substantial adjustments to the evaluation. It also assesses whether results from the implementation are as earlier predicted.
In adult education, adults are taught different evaluation techniques which relate to their respective contexts. They are also taught the different challenges and various which are in the form of different aspects such as in the ethical and physical boundaries. They are also guided how to predict potential threats and ways in which to mitigate them. They are strongly advised to appl...
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