Hormones are required in the body for the strength of bones. Hormones are known as chemicals that are found in the glands, and they travel throughout the body as they cause effects on growth, energy, weight, maturation, and strength of bones. Sex hormones such as estrogen and testosterone are necessary to control the ability to reproduce. They are the reason for the increase in bone strength in the early teenage years (Aguiar-Oliveira & Bartke, 2019). In cases where teenagers have low levels of testosterone and estrogen, the bones tend to become weaker.
Other hormones produced by the thyroid glands, the parathyroid glands, the pituitary glands and the brain itself are vital in controlling the levels of calcium found in the blood. They also control the levels of energy and the ability to grow. These hormones function the same in both males and females. For healthy bones, an individual needs the correct levels of all the hormones mentioned above. There are reasons why the hormones can either be too high or too low, leading to abnormalities. When calcium and phosphorus are in short supply, regulating hormones have the task of taking them out of the bone so that they serve other purposes in the body systems. However, too much withdrawal could lead to the weakening of the bone.
The role of regulatory hormones is to determine how much bone is formed at different phases of skeletal growth. It also determines how well bone strength and mass is maintained throughout life. Other hormones such as the thyroid hormone function by increasing the production of energy of all body cells inclusive of the bone cells. If a child is deficient in thyroid hormone, their growth is impaired.
An example of a disease affecting hormones that primarily affect bone growth in children is hypopituitarism. It is a disorder where the pituitary glands fail to produce any more hormones, or the production is not enough. Hormone deficiency affects many body routine functions that include growth, blood pressure, or reproduction.
If an individual has hypopituitarism, they are likely to take medication for the rest of their life. The need for medication is to replace the missing hormones that help to control the symptoms. The child experiences a lot of fatigue, weakness of the muscle, changes in body fat composition, and lack of ambition. Hypopituitarism may cause growth problems in children and, more so, cause short stature.
An example of a disease affecting hormones for bone growth in adults is acromegaly. It is a hormonal disorder that develops in cases where the pituitary gland produces too much growth hormones during adulthood. When it occurs, there is an increase in the size of the bones, inclusive of those found on the feet, hands, and also face. Individuals tend to have exaggerated bone growth and may have an abnormal increase in their height.
The condition takes long enough to be recognized because it is uncommon, and there is a gradual change in physical changes (Lavrentaki et al., 2017). A common sign of the disease is an individual having enlarged hands and feet. There is a gradual change in the shape of the face as an individual could have an enlarged nose or a protruding jaw. The disease could cause serious illnesses if not treated promptly. Acromegaly can also be life-threatening hence the need for fast treatment. The availability of treatments can be vital to reduce risks of complications as well as significantly improve the characteristics of the condition.
Aguiar-Oliveira, M. H., & Bartke, A. (2019). Growth hormone deficiency: health and longevity. Endocrine Reviews, 40(2), 575-601.
Lavrentaki, A., Paluzzi, A., Wass, J. A., & Karavitaki, N. (2017). Epidemiology of acromegaly: a review of population studies. Pituitary, 20(1), 4-9.
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