The research had several hypotheses. However, the focus of the analysis was on only a number of them. It was predicted that participants given instructions in red ink would perform worse on the anagram task than participants who were given instructions in green or black ink. Further, it was predicted that the participants would believe that the particular color manipulation used in the instructions section of the anagram would not affect their performance. It was also predicted that the participants given red ink would find the anagram task more challenging for themselves and others and will find it more frustrating compared to green or black ink.
What is the independent variable for study one? Make sure you tell me how many IVs there are and how many levels there are for each IV
The study had one independent variable which is the color condition. This had three levels, i.e. red, green, and black. The participants were given the anagram test with instructions either in red ink, others in green and another section of the participants in black ink.
What is the dependent variable for study one? Note: there are several of these, so focus on the ones the author analyzed
Several independent variables were present in the study. However, the researcher analyzed a number of them, namely: the performance on the anagram (number of correct anagrams solved), the belief among participants on the influence of color on their performance, the confidence/frustration level among participants given the different color conditions and participants awareness of color manipulation.
What did they find in study one? Give the general outcome
Just like it was hypothesized, the participants in the red condition solved fewer anagrams than in both the green and black. The participants were also aware of the manipulations in the study i.e. different color conditioning of the instructions. Also as expected, participants believed that the color ink used in the instructions did not affect them regardless of color ink used in the instructions.
What is the hypothesis for study two?
Similar to the first study, the researchers predicted that participants who were given red ink instructions will solve fewer anagrams than those given black ink. Further, they expected that those given a warning about ink color and anagram performance will perform better on the anagram task as compared to those who were not forewarned. It was also predicted that those in the black ink condition regardless of warning will find the anagram task less frustrating than those in the red ink condition.
What is the independent variable for study two? Make sure you tell me how many IVs there are and how many levels there are for each IV
The study had two independent variables. The first one was the color manipulation with two main levels in red and black. The second one was forewarning condition where some participants were forewarned of the influence of color on performance and others were not.
What is the dependent variable for study two? Note: there are several of these, so focus on the ones the author analyzed
Among the several dependent variables in the study, the researcher focused on 1. Anagram performance given the color and forewarning. 2. Participant belief of forewarning and color manipulation as an influence in performance. 3. Participants cognizant of color manipulation in the instructions
What did they find in study two? Give the general outcome
Similar to the first study, participants solved more anagrams in the black condition than the red condition and also in both color conditions were cognizant of the ink color in the instructions. Also, there was no difference in the number of anagrams correctly solved in the no forewarning condition versus in the forewarning condition. Further, it was established that there was no main effect for forewarning; participants did not think being forewarned influenced the number of anagrams they correctly solved.
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Fetterman, A. K., Robinson, M. D., Gordon, R. D., & Elliot, A. J. (2011). Anger as seeing red: Perceptual sources of evidence. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 2(3),
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Petty, R. E., & Cacioppo, J. T. (1977). Forewarning, Cognitive Responding, and Resistance to Persuasion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35(9), 645-655.
Steele, K. M. (2014). Failure to replicate the Mehta and Zhu color-priming effect on anagram solution times. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21(3), 771-776.
Weber, C.J., & Bizer, G. Y. (2006). The effects of immediate forewarning of test difficulty on test performance. Journal of General Psychology, 133(3), 277-285.
The study involved two studies that focused on the effect of priming with a specific color on the performance of participants in anagram tests. The first study involved 115 participants where each completed an anagram task in questionnaires containing instructions written in red, green, or black ink. The researcher predicted that the participants whose instructions were in red would not perform as well as those with green and black colored instructions given the association of red to avoidance and failure. The outcomes evidenced this expectation. The second aimed at establishing the effect that forewarning of the color red has on anagram performance. It focused on 227 participants. Participants were subjected to same color manipulations under two conditions, red and black ink. They were further either forewarned of the effect of ink color on performance or not. The outcomes similar to the first study confirmed that few anagrams were solved under the red ink condition than the black ink. It also found no main effect of forewarning on the participant's performance. The outcomes of the study point out to the need to avoid priming with color red when administering or taking part in an achievement task.
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