Literature Review Example on Teens' Awareness of Periodontitis and Oral Health

Paper Type:  Literature review
Pages:  7
Wordcount:  1653 Words
Date:  2021-04-06

Periodontal diseases are probably the most persisting conditions that affect teens and youths. These incorporate combined periodontitis also called early onset periodontitis which includes various types of prepubertal periodontitis and adolescent periodontitis, gingivitis and periodontal diseases related to a systemic issue. Periodontal diseases as the interminable irresistible issue brought on primarily by microbes. It incorporates any acquired or obtained condition of the tissues that are contribute and supporting the teeth (gingiva, cementum, PDL, and alveolar bone) Various research have found that the best way to deal with common cases of periodontal diseases is prevention. Moreover, early identification and treatment may be applied to cure the condition. There are different studies that are try to find out the most widely recognized periodontal diseases that influence adolescents (Eke, Dye, Wei, Thornton-Evans & Genco, 2012). They are perpetual gingivitis otherwise called the dental plaque-actuated gingival diseases. The other one is the early onset periodontitis or forceful periodontitis which incorporates prepubertal and juvenile periodontitis. The studies additionally takes a look at systemic diseases that influence the periodontium and oral sores regularly found among the young grown-ups. Among the issues tended to are their predominance, analytic attributes, microbiology, have related components, and efficient administration of each of these infection elements (Gur & Majra, 2011).

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As indicated by the medical data, the word periodontium has a Greek origin. The term peri- implies around while odons implies the tooth. Hence, the word can is taken to mean what is around the tooth. Periodontium characterizes the tissues which encompass and underpins the teeth. They incorporate the Cementum, gingiva, alveolar bone and the periodontal tendons. Past reviews demonstrated that essential dentition of periodontium varies from the permanent dentition in a few perspectives (Costa, Martins, Bonfim, Zina, Paiva, Pordeus & Abreu, 2012). The gingiva in significant dentition is more ruddy, vascular, and out of shape and needs stippling. In adolescents, the periodontal tendons are more extensive and have less thick filaments. Then again, the alveolar bone in essential dentition with less trabecular and calcification, more marrow spaces, and more noteworthy blood supply and lymphatic waste. At the atomic level, a few scientists found that periodontium of the essential dentition resorbed more effortlessly because it contains more sialoprotein and osteopontin, which encourage the official of odontoclast. In most of the industrialized and wealthy countries such as Sweden, dental caries affects about 60-90% of schoolchildren as well as a vast majority of adults. According to the data from the WHO, adolescent children having decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) were more in wealthy countries compared to developing countries (Celeste, Fritzell & Nadanovsky, 2011). This was attributed to a growing consumption of sugars and inadequate exposure to fluorides.

From 2000, studies, tests, and clinical insights demonstrated a high predominance of periodontal diseases among kids and teenagers. This required for a research by dental specialists on the study of illness transmission, microbiology, pathology, counteractive action, conclusion, and treatment of periodontal diseases in youngsters and teenagers. Ebb and flow writing give a portion of the premise to audit the ebb and flow periodontal diseases in pediatric dentistry. It comprises of MEDLINE database on periodontal diseases in teenagers; periodontal diseases hazard elements, microbiology of periodontal diseases, the order of periodontal diseases, the study of disease transmission of periodontal diseases and treatment of periodontal diseases (Tarannum, Prasad, Vivekananda, Jayanthi & Faizuddin, 2013).

Disease transmission of the Periodontal Diseases among adolescents

In 1996, Albandar et al. studies the frequency of gingivitis among young people in the United States and found that 82.1% of the people who partook the study had gingivitis. Comparable discoveries demonstrating a high prevalence of gingivitis young people were found in different places. Another review by Albandar et al., surveyed the normality of early-onset types of periodontitis among groups of US teenagers and the report showed that 0.6% of the review group were juvenile periodontitis between 1315 years old while another 2.75% of the had incessant periodontitis between the age of 16 and 17. Different specialists have found a bigger measure of plaque and little aggravation contrasted with the grown-ups. Moreover, clinicians and professionals have noticed that most periodontal diseases influencing youths are reversible and cause little tissue harm compared with the grown-ups (Vettore, M. V., Marques & Peres, 2013).

Reasons for periodontal infection among young people

Periodontal diseases are most usually brought about by the pathogenic microorganism in the oral biofilm or dental plaque that amasses around the teeth because of poor oral hygiene. The conditions happen when different Gram-negative microscopic organisms and anaerobes in subgingival plaque increases. Various research has been carried to distinguish bacterial species related to the periodontal diseases. Among the discovered microscopic organisms were related microorganisms. They included Aggregatibacter (Actinobacillus), Porphyromonas gingivitis, Tannerella forsythensis, and spirochaete Treponema denticola. Late reviews embroil growths, for example, Candida albicans, and Herpes infections in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases among insusceptible traded off teenagers. Be that as it may, hereditary, formative, traumatic, neoplastic, and metabolic elements added to the reason for these diseases. Moreover, some systemic diseases and prescriptions additionally have periodontal appearances.

In the course of the most recent decades, the terminology and arrangement of periodontal diseases changed sporadically. Despite the causative variables, periodontal diseases are separated into damaging and nondestructive nature. Gingivitis is the most widely recognized sort and is a reversible and nondestructive type of periodontal diseases. The minimal gingiva is provoked and may advance to incorporate free and appended gingiva, however, bringing about no connection adversity. Given clinical discoveries and conclusion, gingivitis was subdivided into irresistible and noninfectious structures. Then again, the irreversible and ruinous type of periodontal diseases is periodontitis. It is the irritation of the tooth supporting tissue, which is joined by the loss of connective tissue connection and breakdown of the supporting alveolar bone (Genco & Borgnakke, 2013).


Gingivitis is an intense or ceaseless issue influencing all children and youths. Analysis of different types of gingivitis depends mostly on the clinical discoveries and their signs. They incorporate redness and edema of the peripheral gingiva and bleeding after testing. As malady holds on, a gingival edge may get to be distinctly bowled, interdental papilla may get to be distinctly developed and bulbous, draining may begin suddenly, and examining profundity may increase as a result of gingival profusion (Thomson, Sheiham, & Spencer, 2012). Ulceration of the sulcular epithelium is apparent for both kids and teenagers. Where B-cell (plasma cells) penetrate in gingivitis is found in youths. In any case, the microbiological picture of gingivitis in teens is not entirely described as some bacterial species have been found in trials.

Adolescents are confronted by different symptoms. To begin with is the Eruption of Gingivitis. Some gingival aggravation regularly appear as expulsion. prepare. Poor oral hygiene disregard or as a result of malalignment of the emitting teeth will infuriate gingival irritation. Where the condition dies down when the oral cleanliness is enhanced, and the tooth achieves typical impediment. Plaque control regimen is connected as the treatment of emitting gingivitis. Besides is the pubertal gingivitis. Pubertal gingivitis is otherwise called a steroid hormone-related gingivitis. It is characterized as the contributor of gingivitis by the change in gonadotrophic hormone levels amid pubescence (Petersen & Ogawa, 2012). This condition is additionally found on pregnant women and in females taking contraceptives. The marvel of this condition is clarified by the expansion in the levels of estrogen and progesterone found in the gingival tissues which result to vasodilatation and multiplication. By and large, an increment in gingival vascularity and increment in defenselessness of aggravation is considered as a neighborhood components.

Pubertal gingivitis is described by swelling of the interdental papilla, with unconstrained gingival drain. Proficient prophylaxis and expulsion of the nearby elements consolidated with great oral cleanliness regimen at home can bring about real upgrades. At times, gingival swelling gets to be fibrotic and requires surgical extraction later on. Gingivitis Related to Mouth-Breathing. Mouth-breathing causes drying up of the oral tissue and therefore gingival irritation and halitosis (Pakpour, Hidarnia, Hajizadeh, Kumar & Harrison, 2011). Quick administration for the issue incorporates keeping up high oral cleanliness, oil of the tissue, and the utilization of the oral screen to cover the tissue amid resting. Disposal of the issue requires extensive treatment arrange by an orthodontist and an otolaryngologist.

Medicate Induced Gingival Overgrowth. Certain classes of solutions have been affirmed to bring about gingival abundance and irritate gingival aggravation within sight of neighborhood components. Those medicines are cyclosporine (invulnerable depressant), phenytoin (anticonvulsant), and calcium channel blockers (antihypertensive). The gingival excess amounting to 30% of patients taking cyclosporine, half of the patients utilizing phenytoin, and 15% of patients cured with calcium channel blockers, for example, nifedipine, verapamil, and amlodipine. This sort of gingival abundance more often than not begins at the interdental zone and then spreads to incorporate peripheral gingiva. Once in a while, it can be so extreme to cover the incisal and occlusal surfaces of the teeth (Jin, Armitage, Klinge, Lang, Tonetti & Williams, 2011). Be that as it may, its seriousness is firmly identified with the measure of aggregated plaque.

The pathogenesis of this condition is dubious yet. Be that as it may, the connection between those medications and metabolites and fibroblast will prompt to fibroepithelial gingival abundance, epithelial acanthosis, the increment in fibroblast number, and increment in collagen creation. The administration of this condition begins from enhancing patient's oral cleanliness by both mechanical and compound plaque control strategies. What's more, expert scaling and cleaning are required to evacuate all the neighborhood exasperating variables. Once in a while, gingivectomy and gingivoplasty are required for gingival recontouring keeping in mind the end goal to enhance stylishly and cleanliness. Dental specialist ought not to attempt to stop or supplant quiet solutions. Be that as it may, counsel with the patient's doctor should be possible to decide the likelihood of medication substitution (Genco & Borgnakke, 2013).

Gingivitis Associated with Malnutrition. There is substantial proof that hypovitaminosis and mineral insufficiency related with a particular appearance in the oral and perioral region may prompt to periodontal diseases. For instance, vitamin C inadequacy will bring about scurvy,...

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Literature Review Example on Teens' Awareness of Periodontitis and Oral Health. (2021, Apr 06). Retrieved from

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