A Dissertation Presented Partial Fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Urban and Regional Planning
Doctorate in Urban Regional Planning
of Supervisory Committee
Dissertation: Heritage Tourism and Economic Development Efforts in Mississippi
The legislative and executive branches of Mississippi have recognized that tourism and travel are a driving force in the state's economic development arena. Currently, the efforts of state agencies and public government have paid off significantly to the industry. Mississippi is rich in heritage sites that have the potential to attract a substantial number of visitors which results in higher revenue for the region's businesses and in turn the administration to earns income. The diversity in Jackson in the form of industry, business, and its position as the capital helps enhance the metropolitan area from the fiscal downtowns by other cities. It is important to realize that increasing the local economic development efforts in communities continues to be a major focus for planners. The aim of this study is to relate the use of heritage tourism to increase the economic development of the state and locals as the role of a planner. This research will also showcase how tourism plays a huge role in increasing the capital in the state as a whole. The theoretical underpinning of this paper is based on the premise that the external environment provides input for tourism. Heritage tourism is theoretically related to economic development. The research objectives are to find out the specific strategic planning techniques in cultural tourism that will spur economic development and to show the relationship of cultural tourism and fiscal growth in the state. The literature reviewed discusses the context of heritage tourism has been a great aspect around the country to achieve capital for regions and distressed cities. This endeavor has emphasized the role that heritage tourism can play in regional developments in different areas of the world.
This research discusses the plan to increase economic development in Mississippi Regional areas using heritage tourism, travel, and other factors. This paper uses a quantitative approach to investigate the factors related to travel and tourism in the Metropolitan Regional Areas and the influence of efforts to improve them. Among the findings of the study, it was established that the initiatives to improve cultural tourism have resulted in direct travel and tourism employment. The efforts have also boosted employment, GDP, revenue, and other activities. The findings show that there is great promise for countries that embrace tourism as an income earner. Tourism has great potential if strategically used. In conclusion, a structural development model for tourist destinations is advised for the boosting of tourist numbers and in return economic development. The research also concludes that a demand model is essential for any country that needs to increase the number of tourists to its attractions. Lastly, the study found out that heritage marketing in Mississippi does not follow any given model of operation. Subsequently, it recommends adoption of a model that will not only attract significant numbers to the attractions, but also keep the numbers flowing to earn the attached benefits.
Table of Contents
Chapter One: Introduction 7
Background and Overview of the research 7
Theoretical Underpinning 8
Purpose of this Research 10
Research Objectives 10
Research Questions 11
Definition of Selected Terms 11
Chapter 2: 16
Literature Review 16
Heritage Tourism 21
Tourism in the United States 24
Tourism and culture heritage 26
Tourism and Growth 29
Tourism contribution to GDP 33
Tourism, Employment & Human Development 35
Tourism marketing 39
Specialization in Tourism 44
Tourism models 48
Concluding remarks 52
Chapter 3: 56
Research Methodology 56
Introduction and Methodology 56
Research Design 57
Sampling Selection 59
Interview guides 61
A.Interview guide for locals 61
B.Interview guide for visitors 62
Statistical methods 63
Chapter 4 66
Findings and Discussion 66
Chapter 5 76
Limitations to the study 79
Implications for Planning 79
Policy Implications 80
Implications for future research 80
Chapter One: Introduction
Background and Overview of the research
The incentives for increasing businesses efforts in the metropolitan Jackson area include; high-quality labor, tax credits, low taxes, and training programs for organizations hence creating new jobs. In addition, the Jackson Area Vision 2022 has been vital in the success of shaping development programs in the area. It has retained projects that facilitate a holistic community and economic developments strategic planning efforts. The vision 2022 brings together current efforts, new initiatives, visionary planning and provides a framework to increase the viability of the project. Vision 2022 has a multi-year plan of transforming the Jackson region into a travel and tourism destination that attracts tourists, businesses, and families to a place of economic opportunity. A diverse group of stakeholders are coming together to holistically and collaboratively plan for the economic future of the greater Jackson (Mississippi Development Authority, 2015).
In urban areas especially historical ones, there are many cinemas and museums that showcase the traditions of the metropolitan area (Mississippi Development Authority, 2015). It is agreed that cultural tourists spend substantially more than other vacationers do. This endeavor has emphasized the role that cultural tourism can play in regional development in different areas of the world. Cultural heritage tourism is drifting to experience the places and activities that realistically represent the stories and people of the past and present. It includes historic, cultural and natural attractions (Hyning, 2014).
Most importantly, improving the economic development efforts in local communities has continued to be a primary focus for role planners. All travels involve a cultural element. Cultural Tourism began to be organized in the late 19th century when tourism researchers and marketers realized that some people traveled specifically to gain a deeper understanding of the destination. Cultural tourism is a mass-market activity. Heritage Tourism has been a great tool around the country to achieve capital for regions. Over 22 million visited the state of Mississippi and spent 6.2 billion dollars. In the last 20 years, tourism has expanded new money into our state daily. This industry has accounted for 84, 000 direct jobs and 29,410 indirect jobs (Hyning, 2014)According to the economic report of 2013-2014, 67% of Mississippi visitors were from out of the state. The annual direct payroll income for Travel and Tourism employees was 1.84 billion. This industry produces $450 million in state tax revenue and $165 million in city and county taxes from visitors spending and additional earning sources that total a combined $615 million (Hyning, 2014). This division of tourism deals with the country region. In general different geographical areas recount of those individuals focuses on how they portray their art, structural design and other elements that helped shaped their way of living
Theory for cultural tourism was utilized in providing explanations, evaluation, analysis, and prediction of the relationship between heritage tourism and economic development (Richards &Munsters, 2010).However, examining economic development from a cultural tourism theoretical perspective demands the availability of data on skills, resources, and infrastructure. A normative model of cultural tourism (Arnaboldi & Spiller, 2011; Girard &Nijkamp, 2009) focuses on external environment that serves the inputs that influence the achievement of the goal such as technological, demographics, statutory policies, health, educational, environmental, legal, socio-cultural, economic, and political environment, even though the types and numbers of environments may be unlimited (Richards&Munsters, 2010). Each environment demands specific adaptations of the conversion approaches (Girard &Nijkamp, 2009). Once the set goal has been realized, the inputs generated by the external environment develop into new needs that are to be satisfied by achieving a new objective (Arnaboldi & Spiller, 2011). On the contrary, there is an argument that is founded on protecting and conserving the integrity of cultural tourism resources through checking resource overuse, overcrowding, and environmental degradation (Richards & Munsters, 2010). According to Richards (2007), heritage and cultural tourism results in significant economic benefits and the development of heritage locations, communities, and townships. Besculides, Lee and McCormick (2002) in their study on benefit-based approach in positioning the perceptions of cultural tourism demonstrated that residing along the byway of cultural tourism offers cultural benefits as well as better levels of management concerns.
A philosophical perspective on cultural tourism of policy makers, providers, and stakeholders shape the norms and values of the normative model that is focused on the development of effective policy framework on the concept of heritage tourism. Locals that participate in promotion and development of heritage and cultural tourism require an effective approach to implementing national and local policies. Heritage and cultural tourism services and product promotion and development require effective planning and adoption with the consideration of policies.
Cultural tourism theory highlights the importance of investing in heritage and cultural goods. Arnaboldi & Spiller (2011) offers approaches that can be used to examine principles and variables such as comprehending cultural tourism, conservation, and development of culture, application of tourism practices and policies, the benefits of heritage tourism, and the development of cultural facilities. He positioned cultural tourism as an undertaking that involves taking part in in-depth cultural experiences, which can be emotional aesthetic, psychological, or intellectual (Richards, 2007). Based on this perspective, this study attempted to position the concept of heritage tourism as a major source of motivation for economic development.
Purpose of this ResearchThe aim of this study is to relate the use of heritage tourism to increase the economic development of the state and locals as the primary role of a planner. This research will also showcase how tourism plays a huge role in increasing capital in the state as a whole and negate the negative connotations that Mississipp...
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