The general aim of the research is to use the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to understand the practice of the University of Central Lancashire international students' behaviours of taking part in UK based leisure activities. The level that a student perceives the risk involved in a particular practice will affect their intent to engage in leisure activities. The primary purpose of the research is to use the theory of planned behaviour as a framework to examine how perceived risk affects the willingness of the University of Central Lancashire international students. The specific objectives that will guide the research include:
What are the most leisure activities that UCLan international students engage in?
To evaluate how the University of Central Lancashire international students engage positively to various values and how it impacts on adapting smoothly to the local lifestyle.
To examine the influence of perceived risk on the behavioural intent of University of Central Lancashire international students to partake in leisure travel.
The research question include:
How is travel for leisure experiences among UCLan international students impact their identity development?
A Justification for the Study
There is an increasing number of international students in the UK; hence they pose diverse cultures and customs. Consequently, they do not only have to deal with the university education pressures but also adapting to the new cultures, a way of life and learning environment (Li & Stodolska, 2006). International students make a considerable population at the University of Central Lancashire, and they face a variety of cultures and society that significantly differ with their home country. Challenges in dealing and adapting to the culture present international students with difficulty in integrating into the particular country. When international students participate in local leisure activities, they quickly adjust to the local culture. University of Central Lancashire international students faces various challenges before they adapt to the new culture and have difficulty in making their free time more meaningful. The young generation, mainly the millennials, adjusting to university life, especially international students is a broader and multidimensional concept regarding the variables that are impacting on university adjustments (Myburgh, Niehaus & Poggenpoel, 2002).
The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) gives a detailed structure to understand international students' habits to participate in local leisure activities (Montano & Kasprzyk, 2015). Often, international students primarily rely on leisure activities for their social \nd emotional support. Through leisure activities, international students develop their cognitive and interpersonal skills while studying abroad. Leisure for travel is a context where international students overcome stress and adversity and improve their comfort while studying in the UK. It acts as a vital tool in intercultural adjustments in living in environments that one is not accustomed to.
Leisure travel has a significant impact on balancing out the stress and experience various cultures and customs. International students' beliefs and evaluation of outcomes combine to generate a positive attitude to leisure travel. While leisure has extensively been researched by the perspectives and experiences of UK based students, little research has been done on concerning the purpose of leisure experiences adjusting among international students in the UK and how leisure especially contributes to adopting and socializing in an international environment.
An Outline of the Research Method
The research will utilize qualitative research method, combining qualitative data obtained from interviews and questionnaires. Participants of the study will be recruited through convenience sampling which is a non-probabilistic sampling method that primarily depends on data collection from convenient members of the study participants. The interviews will provide a platform where international students of the UCLan will explore the experiences, concepts and description of travel for leisure, which best serves to put forward their interests. It will enable the researcher to stimulate the discussion to evaluate how knowledge and ideas function among University of Central Lancashire international students. This will include their perceptions of the areas they visited, their attitude, intention, and plan to participate in leisure travel, the perceived risk that may include psychological, financial or social risks. It is essential to explore the experiences, views, and opinions of international students regarding their attitudes towards traveling for leisure. Using this method, more sensitive issues can be discussed with a student while personal information will be captured through the interviews. For the research, a semi-structured interview is opted to create a resourceful interaction between the international students and the researcher.
The questionnaires will be used as an efficient way of obtaining detailed information in a quick and efficient way. Using questionnaires will be an effective means of measuring behaviour of international students, attitudes and intentions. The questionnaires will contain both open end and closed end questions. Therefore, through a qualitative research method, the researcher will be able to collect in depth and detailed data by encouraging participants to expand their responses regarding travel for leisure.
The primary population for the study is international students enrolled at the University of Central Lancashire. This research will use both interviews and questionnaire; therefore, each participant will be provided with a consent form to indicate the type of study they will participate. It is vital to assure participants of their privacy, and it is voluntary based; hence, there are no consequences for withdrawal in the participation. Additionally, participants will be informed that there are no specific benefits or associated risks after completing the study. Participants will also be notified the required time estimations that will be needed to complete the study, possibility of the study publication and data security assurance. Moreover, participants will be issued with contacts of the researcher to provide more elaboration in case of any issues or concerns.
The researcher will contact the international student's office of UCLan to seek corporation. International students currently enrolled will then be notified through emails for their voluntary participation in the study. The researcher will create a social media account in Whatsapp and Facebook to generate interaction with participants within easy reach to increase ease of access to the researched group. Schedules and content of the study will constantly be shared through the accounts. The researcher will then form a group of international students considering the wide variety of national and cultural backgrounds. Moreover, the researcher will also determine participants among students who are willing to participate in the study. International students who will express interest to participate in the study will be sent consent and research documents, interview and focus group discussions will be scheduled between March and April.
Li, M. Z., & Stodolska, M. (2006). Transnationalism, leisure, and Chinese graduate students in the United States. Leisure Sciences, 28(1), 39-55. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1080/01490400500332686
Montano, D. E., & Kasprzyk, D. (2015). Theory of reasoned action, the theory of planned behaviour, and the integrated behavioural model. Health behaviour: Theory, research and practice, 95-124. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1080/03069889808259702
My burgh, C. P. H., Niihau's, L., & Poggenpoel, M. (2002). International learners' experiences and coping mechanisms within a culturally diverse context. Education, 123(1), 107-130. DOI: 10.1177/0022022104270109
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