Essay on WAIS-IV & MMPI-2: Assessing Cognitive Ability & Psychopathology in Adults

Paper Type:  Essay
Pages:  4
Wordcount:  1097 Words
Date:  2023-04-05


The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) are two psychometric tests for assessing adult cognitive ability and measuring adult psychopathology, respectively. WAIS-IV testing plays a critical role in evaluating the association between intellectual functioning and memory in older adolescents and adults. Clinical psychologist Hathaway and neuropsychiatrist McKinley developed the MMPI in 1937, revising it to become MMPI-2 in 1989 (Drayton, 2009). Many professionals today employ MMPI-2 testing in mental health institutions (evaluate and diagnose mental disorders), medical and occupational organizations. Mmpi-2 has the significance of giving accurate data since it draws results based on empirical research and makes it difficult for individuals to "fake" responses by creating impressions or deny mental challenges.

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Relevant terms

The two journal articles have employed the following terms evaluating adult cognitive ability and intelligence; Psychometric test - a regular and scientific technique utilized to measure an individual's psychological aptitudes and behavioral style. Cognitive ability - an individual strength to perform various mental activities most closely associated with learning and problem-solving. Psychopathology is the scientific study of mental disorders. Intellectual functioning is the general mental capability such as reasoning, problem-solving, and learning.

Problem Statement

The MMPI-2 and WAIS-IV psychometric tests should aim at acquiring correct information from individuals and patients assessed to increase the reliability and validity of these testing tools.

MMPI-2 Analysis

The MMPI-2 is a true/false individual-report clinical assessment tool for measuring and diagnosing an individual's mental state. The test has undergone rapid revisions and advancements since its innovation in 1934 to improve its validity.


The MMP1-2 test has 567 test items and takes 60-90 minutes for completion comprising the MMPI-2-RF that has 338 right/false questions that individuals use 35-50 minutes to finish (Gambetti, Zucchelli, Nori and Giusberti, 2019). The professional who administers this test and interprets the results should have specialized training in MMPI use, preferably a clinical psychologist or psychiatrist. The professional performs the analysis alongside other assessment tools.


Professionals administer the MMPI-2 test to a single or a group of individuals. The person(s) should be 18 years or above (Roma, Mazza, Ferracuti, Cinti, Ferracuti & Burla, 2019).


The MMPI-2 test provides measurements for ten mental health disorders. Every psychological condition has its symptoms that make them fall into a specific score group known as the clinical scale. An elevated score for a particular clinical range reveals to the patient's psychologist that a person is struggling with a specific mental health issue. These scales, according to Gambetti, Zucchelli, Nori, and Giusberti (2019), include Scale 1(hypochondriasis), which evaluates the unstable condition of an individual over his/her bodily functioning. Scale 2 (Depression) reveals depression and anxiety symptoms in an individual. Scale 3 (Hysteria) where the results show individuals who display complaints in stressful situations. Scale 4 (psychopathic deviate) measures social deviation, denial of morality and compliance to legalities. Scale 5 (Masculinity- femininity) for measuring an individual's identification of their sexes' interests and same-sex tendencies. Scale 6 (Paranoia) for identifying individuals with paranoid symptoms such as excessive sensitivity and suspiciousness. Scale 7 (Psychasthenia) scores reveal anxiety, unreasonable fears and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Scale 8 (Schizophrenia) scores show that an individual has schizophrenic symptoms such as social alienation and sexual difficulties. Scale 9 (Hypomania) identifies individuals with hypomania conditions such as hallucinations. Scale 0 (Social Introversion) scores determine social introversion traits such as shyness and withdrawal from social interaction and accountabilities.

Reliability and Validity

Most professionals in the clinical industry have approved the reliability and validity of the MMPI-2 test in measuring individuals' psychological state. According to the research conducted by Roma et al. (2019), the internal consistency of coefficients, mean-item, and zero-order correlations of the record information from 811 chronic low back patients indicated validity and reliability of the MMPI-2 of the efficacy and clinical scales. Therefore, the MMPI-2 test is valid so long as an individual provides correct information.

WAIS-IV Analysis

The WAIS-IV test instrument measures the cognitive ability and mental performance of adults through verbal complexion, perceptual reasoning, working memory, and processing speed (Gies, 2018).


A trained psychologist or psychiatrist administers the WAIS-IV test. The individually administered test has a norm-referenced intellectual measure with 15 subtests where ten are mandatory and five optional for the patient. The professional uses a combination of verbal and performance tests (Gies, 2018). The administration process involves the use of an administration manual, a record form, two response booklets, and two stimulus books. An individual takes approximately 60 to 90 minutes to complete the test.


Medical professionals administer the WAIS-IV test to an individual or a group of people aged 16 -91 years (Gies, 2018).


The WAIS-IV test instrument yields four composite scores: perceptual reasoning, verbal comprehension, working memory, and processing speed (Di Nuovo, Angelica, & Santoro, 2018). The spoken comprehension index reveals an individual's ability to listen to a question, draw similarities to the query, reason through an answer, and express their thoughts. Perceptual reasoning index allows an individual to examine a problem, draw upon a visual puzzle, logic and create solutions. It reveals the preferences of an individual to visual information and learning by doing (Di Nuovo, Angelica, & Santoro, 2018). The working memory index shows an individual's ability to memorize new information, store and manipulate it to create a given result. The processing speed index reveals an individual's to center attention, scan, select, and order visual information in an arithmetic sequential manner.

Reliability and Validity

According to the research by Di Nuovo, Angelica, & Santoro (2018), the WAIS-IV test's well-established scale has relatively high consistency in measuring intelligence, making it reliable. The test's extensive profile of indexes allows the diagnosis of mental complications and the depiction of an individual's knowledge. The test has different scales and subtests making it valid and reliable so long as the individual answering the tests is reliable.


Di Nuovo, S., Angelica, A., & Santoro, G. (2018). Measuring intellectual impairment in adults A comparison between WAIS-IV and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Life Span and Disability, 21(2), 165-176. Retrieved from

Drayton, J. (2009). The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2). Occupational Medicine, Volume 59, Issue 2, Pages 135-136,

Gambetti, E., Zucchelli, M. M., Nori, R., & Giusberti, F. (2019). Psychological assessment in abuse and neglect cases: The utility of the MMPI-2. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 50(6), 384-394.

Gies, T. (2018). The ScienceDirect accessibility journey: A case study. Learned Publishing, 31(1), 69-76. doi: 10.1002/leap.1142.

Roma, P., Mazza, C., Ferracuti, G., Cinti, M. E., Ferracuti, S., & Burla, F. (2019). Drinking and driving relapse: Data from BAC and MMPI-2. PLoS ONE, 14(01), 1-13.

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Essay on WAIS-IV & MMPI-2: Assessing Cognitive Ability & Psychopathology in Adults. (2023, Apr 05). Retrieved from

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