Scenario 1: Map reading
The case scenario shows that the children are not proficient readers of maps. The teacher was able to realize from the silence and embarrassed giggles that most of her students knew little about the scale on their map and how it worked. This is because the students find map reading so confusing and they find it difficult to follow instructions when assisted by maps of familiar or unfamiliar locations. To assist the students to understand, the teacher employed used educational practices that would help the children understand the relationship between the world around them using example the classroom map and map of NSW based on scale. These spatial conceptual developments are based on the works of Jean Piaget. Piaget's personal constructivism theory states that children understand general concept formation using spatial understanding. The teacher used special activities such as measuring the classroom and comparing it to the scale to help the children understand the underlying concept of a map. However, he did not help the children to understand one of the most challenging perspective of imagining buildings and mountains from the ground level using the aerial or bird's view level. Carol teaching skills can also be explained using Vygotsky's social constructivism theory that states that knowledge is socially constructed. The teacher helped the children to construct knowledge through contact with the real world. She had the students work in pairs to measure the classroom and its contents and draw pictures of what they found. Such an interaction is a critical part of Vygotsky's Zone of Proximal Development that helps to express children's learning potential by comparing what children can do on their own with the support of the teacher. Based on the Social cognitive theory, the children's learning process was positively impacted since the theory emphasizes that through observations and interaction with others, people can learn the appropriateness, usefulness, and consequences of behaviors, which develops knowledge, skills, rules, and beliefs. By comparing the children's mind to a computer- the basis of principles from information processing-the children were able to process the information they were learning, store the information using mental programs and transform it to their senses, with the results being behavioral responses. That is why the teacher started to see that the children were beginning to understand what "scale" meant. The major recommendations for the teacher is that the teacher need to provide the instruction slowly, using direct and simple language, and continue using corporative setting that engage and involve students in interactive opportunities. The teacher should further approach the children during their independent work time to see if they understand scale concepts.
Scenario 2: Doing their Sums
The major issue and ultimate goal of instructions in mathematics understand concepts, applying skills, and recalling the skills. It is important for the students to understand and apply the mathematical concepts instead of just memorizing them. As a result, Miss Evans considers his students are ready to undertake some independent practice on subtraction problems individually. Miss Evans tries to apply both behavioral and social cognitive theories in her teaching methods using human behavior within a framework of reciprocal interactions or triadic reiprocality among behaviors and personal factors such as cognitions. One of the major characteristics of behavioral and social cognitive theories observed the scenario is the perceived self efficacy. Some students in particular Carlo wonder if she can do the last three problems. Self efficacy has influenced Carlo's achievement in the last sums directly, and the teacher tries to explain and organize the sums well enough to her to understand. Once an individual believes that he cannot do math, then the chances of having problems with math. I love Miss Evans attitude and how he assures Carlo that he can solve the problems and work together to help her learn. The teacher was successful at supporting students' metacognitive skills by motivating them and breaking the problem into manageable steps to increase their confidence. However, most students showed that the triad reciprocality is a cycle, which repeats itself unless it is changed. Although some students such as Alex were capable to solve the problems on their own, most students required more practice over and over again to remember the steps to work math. The major recommendation that can enhance Miss Evans' teaching for the future include
Scenario 3: Changing Student Behavior
From Carol's information, I determined that the student's current school environment was not conducive to his learning. Although some of the students in his class are also Mexican, the school had enforced a policy that prevented ESL learners from speaking their native language during school hours. Besides, many of the Mexicans in the class were from different regions, and they mostly seemed shy. While the student's oral skills are not as good as many other students in his class, and especially those in different environments, he has demonstrated high performance in written English. His written work shows a rich vocabulary and strong grammar. According to his teacher, among the Mexican students, Joe Gomez is the best at constructing meaningful sentences. The teacher is dumbfounded by this ability and points out that low self-esteem is the likely cause for such a situation. According to the teacher, from the tests, it seems like Joe Gomez is a different student from the one who attends his classes. Indeed, Powers (2013) recommends that writing, speaking, listening, and reading should all be considered when assessing second language proficiency. From the written tests, it is evident that the student-subject has high cognitive abilities that have been key to developing the English ability he has acquired.
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