Essay on Biological and Cognitive Perspectives of Psychology: Analysing Behaviour

Paper Type:  Essay
Pages:  4
Wordcount:  1062 Words
Date:  2022-12-29


I primarily believe in the biological perspective of psychology; however, on the topic of learning, I favor the cognitive perspective. The biological perspective of psychology facilitates the perception of issues that deal with the psychology by understanding the physical or rather biological premise for behavior. The cognitive perspective of psychology, on the other hand, studies how information is processed by the brain and sense organs. Both perspectives are ideal in analysing behaviour; however, this paper will seek to analyse and compare both perspectives and its effectiveness with regard to behaviour.

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Biological Perspective of Psychology

Biological perspective allows psychologists to study the contributions of nature versus nurture when it comes to animal and human behavior. It deals with the analysis or study of issues such as genetics, endocrinology (the study of endocrine glands and hormones), and physiological psychology (the study of the behavior of the brain).

The perspective also heavily relies on the nature of an individual or an animal and how it plays a significant role in how they behave (Cherry). I believe that all human and animal behavior is rooted in their biological makeup - their response to fear or threat among other elements is determined by their nature.

The biological perspective and its influence on animal and human behavior, as explained by Charles Darwin in his theory of natural selection, indicates that biological behaviors are passed down to future generations with the aim of the survival of the species. Aside from survival instincts, the biological perspective of psychology helps us understand why some people behave the way they do. Why are some people more aggressive than others or why are some people confident than others?

According to biological psychology, elements such as anger, aggression among others are inborn and because of this factor, this perspective allows psychologists to analyze psychological problems and disorders in a very scientific, reliable and practical way. Despite its reliability, the biological perspective has one weakness - in its approach, it fails to account for other influences to behavior other than the biological make-up. These other influences include factors such as experiences through childhood, the emotions of the individual, pressure in the society, factors in the environment and culture influences.

Cognitive Perspective of Psychology

As stated earlier, the cognitive perspective of psychology studies how information is processed by the brain and sense organs by examining internal mental processes associated with problem solving, memory, and language. This perspective is highly integrated and incorporated into other disciplines such as educational psychology, developmental psychology, and behavioral economics. Therefore, this perspective is best preferred when it comes to learning new behaviors or acquiring new skills and knowledge.

On the debate of nature versus nurture, the cognitive perspective of psychology leans more on the nurture side by suggesting that behaviors are learned and that people are the result of their upbringing. This perspective acknowledges the existence of internal mental states such as human will, their beliefs, desires, and motivations (Cornoldi 2). Psychologists who favor the cognitive perspective argue that problems can be solved by the use of algorithms, heuristics, and insights.

Cognitive Psychology Learning Behaviour

In relation to learning, the cognitive psychology is useful in the process of education and gathering knowledge as well as self-monitoring, where people evaluate their knowledge and experiences and by doing so; they improve their areas of knowledge. This perspective is also useful in helping individuals like students in college integrate their specific knowledge with certain tasks which well-suits the knowledge they have.

For example, a student's knowledge of computer algorithms can use their knowledge in completing tasks such as a software engineer for a tech company. Not only does the study of cognitive psychology help students develop their skills further, but they also enable them to be efficient in their tasks. The study of cognitive psychology is also important as its application can be used in other fields such as developmental psychology. This focuses on the development of the mental capabilities, ideas, thoughts, and feelings especially of children between the ages of 4 to 6.

The biological perspective is essential when it comes to instinct response; however, the cognitive perspective helps an individual respond intellectually to situations that occur in everyday life. It helps us make sound judgments based on the information received and how the brain processes that information. This can also be based on learning experiences acquired in the past, where the brain remembers different concepts it learned and applies that concept in the situation at hand.

A good example is when an individual is chocking the cognitive response will be to retrieve knowledge acquired during a first aid class and apply it in the current situation. Cognitive psychology is also important in applying logic to situations - a factor not related to the biological make-up of an individual. For example, it is logical to carry an umbrella on a day that might rain so as to avoid being rained on later that day.

It is also very useful in trying to solve problems, even those which the person has not been through before. For example, if a car has a flat tire the cognitive response would be to figure out a way to remove the flat tire and replace it with another tire. This draws the conclusion of the mind as a powerful tool in behaviour.


There is a definite relationship between biological and cognitive perspectives of psychology as both complement each other. The biological perspective deals with the functioning of the brain, while the cognitive perspective deals with the capacity of the brain to memorize, solve problems, and acquire knowledge. Despite the differences, both perspectives analyze human behavior; one in a biological sense (biological perspective) and the other in an internal sense (cognitive perspective).

In regards to how each complements each other, is that both do not consider the social and emotional factors in human behavior. This then points out that these two perspectives alone cannot stand by themselves and will require other psychology perspectives in order to fully and completely analyze human and animal behavior. However, the two perspectives are very useful in analyzing the biological and mental impact on behavior.

Works Cited

Cherry, Kendra. The Role of the Biological Perspective in Psychology. 02 January 2019. 03 May 2019 <>.

Cornoldi, Cesare. "The contribution of cognitive psychology to the study of human intelligence." European Journal of Cognitive Psychology 2006:, pp. 1-17.

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