Thesis Example: Swearing Words in Foreign Languages

Date:  2021-06-28 17:31:35
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4.1 Swearing words used to express shock

Results reveal that swearing words of a scatological type are used to express shock. For instance, Putain de merde is a French phrase that means Fucking shit and used to express shock. Scheisse! is a German word that means shit and it is used to express shock. Mist is a German word that means dung and it is also used to express shock. Kacke is also a German swearing word that means shit and it is used to express shock. Merde is a French word that means shit. ScheiAYe is a German word that means shit.

Swearing words that make reference to sexual reproductive organs are used in swearing. For instance kut! is a Dutch word that means cunt and it is used to express shock. Swearing words that make reference to sexual activity are also used to express shock. Merda or cagun la puta is a Spanish phrase that means I shit in the prostitute and it is used to express shock.

Expletives are also used to express shock. For instance, zut is a French expletive that means heck and it is used to express shock. Aduh is an Indonesian expletive that means ouch.

Swearing words that make reference to religion are also used to express shock. For instance, Oh my God is an English phrase that is used to express shock.

4.2 Swearing words used to express anger

The study revealed that swearing words that are used to express anger make reference to sexual activities. It was revealed that fuck and its versions in other languages are commonly used to express anger. Fuck off and fuck you are some versions of fuck that are used to express anger. Val dood is a Dutch phrase that means fuck you. Vaffanculo is an Italian word that means fuck off and it is used to express anger. Go fuck yourself is a phrase that is used to express anger. Me cago en la puta is a Spanish phrase that is used to express anger and it means I shit myself in the whore.

The results reveal that swearing is done by alluding that a person is mentally incapacitated. When angry, a person is likely to allude that another person is mentally incapacitated. Idiot and its versions in other languages is often used to express anger at a person. In Malay, boodoh is a word that means silly and it is used to suggest that a person is unintelligent or mentally incapacitated. Idiotas is a Russian word that alludes that the person on the receiving end of the insult is foolish.

Swearing words are likely to make reference to sexual reproductive organs when expressing anger. For instance, the word cunt and its versions in other languages is used to express anger. Kutwijf is a Dutch word that means cunt. HYPERLINK "http://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=Picka%20ti%20materina" Picka ti materina is a Serb-Croatian phrase that means your mothers vagina.

Swearing words are also likely to make reference to a persons morals when expressing anger. Son of a bitch is a phrase used by individuals to express anger and it is used to suggest that the mother of the person that the swearing word is directed to is of loose morals. Bangsat is a Malay word that means a dishonest person and it is used to express a persons displeasure about unscrupulous behavior that is displayed by a person who is on the receiving end of the swearing word.

Swearing words are likely to make reference to a persons body parts when expressing anger. The most common body part that is referenced when expressing anger is buttocks. The buttock is commonly known as ass. Asshole is a swearing word that is used to express anger as revealed by the study. Arschloch is a German word that means asshole and it is used by Germans to express anger. Klootzak is a Dutch word that means asshole and it is used to express anger. Ves-ten a cagar is a Catalan phrase that means go shit on yourself. Idi u kurac is a Croatian phrase that means go inside a dick and it is used to express anger. Lul is a Dutch word that means dick and it is used to express anger.

Some swearing words used to express anger are scatological in nature. For instance, in French, connard is a word that is used to express anger. Connard means shithead in English. Du scheiAYkerl is a Danish word that means shithead and it is used to express anger. Shit is commonly used in American English as well as British English when it comes to expressing anger.

There are swearing words that can be used to express anger and at the same time used as references to several things. For instance, brengsek is an Indonesian swearword that is used to express anger. The word Brengsek can mean asshole, useless, bastard, fuck, fucker or useless idiot.

Swearing words used to express anger can also have religious references. For instance, Godverdomme is a Dutch word that means Goddammit and it is used to express anger. Du-te dracu is a Romanian word that means go to hell and it is used to express anger. Jesus Fucking Christ is an English swearing phrase that is used to express anger and at the same time makes reference to Jesus Christ.

There are swearing words which are used to express anger that make references to diseases. Dutch swearing words are best known to make references to diseases. Dutch words that make reference to diseases are regarded as highly insulting swearing words. Some of the Dutch phrases and words that are used to make reference to diseases include Gore/vieze kankerlijer and teringlijer. Teringlijer means tuberculosis sufferer whereas kankerlijer means cancer victim. God Vergeten teringleider is a Dutch phrase that means abandoned tuberculosis victim.

Expletives are also used to express anger. Flikker op is a Dutch phrase that means go away and it is used to express anger.

Your mother and its variations is used in swearing to express anger. Son of a bitch is an English phrase that is used to express anger. Fuck your mother is also another swearing word that is used to express anger. Hijo de puta is a Spanish phrase that means son of a whore and it is used in swearing.

Sexual activity is also used as a reference when it comes to swearing words with regard to anger. Some of the swearing words that make reference to sexual activity include Go get fucked and Suck my dick man. Vete a tomar por el pulo is a Spanish phrase that means Go get fucked in the ass and it is used to express anger.

There are swearing words with regard to anger that make reference to animals. For instance, Mal is a Russian word that means animal and it is used in cursing. Anjing is an Indonesian word that means dog and is used as a swearing word to express ang4.3 Swearing words used to express pain

Swearing words that are used to express pain make reference to sexual activities. Putaaaaaaain is a French word that means f*******uck and it is used to express pain. Fuck is an English swearing word that is used to express pain. Fututi is a Romanian word that means fuck you and it is used to express pain. Joder is a Spanish word that means fuck and it is used to express pain.

Expletives are used in swearing as a way of expressing pain. Auw is a Dutch word that means ouch! and it is used to express pain. Argh! and Dammit are English expletives that are used to express pain. Ouch! is an English expletive that is used to express pain. Aduh is an Indonesian word that means ouch and it is used to express pain. KUT! is a Dutch expletive that means pussy and it is used to express pain. Au is an Indonesian expletive that means au and it is used to express pain.

There are swearing words which are used to express pain and make reference to scatology. For instance, scheiaye is a German swearing word that means shit. Kacke is also a German swearing word that means shit. Mist is a German swearing word that means dung. Merde is a French swearing word that is used to express pain that means dung. Shit is an English swearing word that is used to express pain. Verdammte scheiAYe, is a German phrase that means damn shit and it is used to express pain. Auw shit is a Dutch phrase that means oh shit and it is used to express pain.

There are swearing words used to express pain that make reference to religion. For instance, ime cago en dios is Spanish phrase that means God damn it! Cago en Dios is a Spanish phrase that means shit on God and it is used to express pain.

There are swearing words that make reference to sexual reproductive organs that are used to express pain. For instance, kut is a Dutch word that means pussy and it is used to express pain.

There are swearing words used to express pain that make reference to a woman with low morals. For instance, hA2stia puta is a Catalan phrase which means Holy Ghost bitch and it is used to express pain. Bangsat is a Malay word that means bitch and it is used in swearing to express pain. Putain is a French word that means whore. Me cago en la putan is a Spanish phrase that means, I shit on the whore.

There are swearing words that are used to express pain make reference to body parts and bodily functions. Bloody is one of the most common slot fillers used in British English when it comes to swearing. Kutzooi is a Dutch word that means bloody mess and it is used to express pain. Nachui is a Russian word that means dick and it is used to express pain. Kurac is a Bosnian word that means dick and it is used to express pain.

There are swearing words that make reference to religion that are used to express pain. Godverdomme, is a Dutch word that means God damn it and it is used to express pain. Porca troia is an Italian phrase that means Holy Shit and it is used to express pain. Kabenzots is a Spanish word that means God damn it and it is used to express pain.

There are swearing words used to express pain that make reference to diseases. For instance, tering is a Dutch word that means tuberculosis and it is used in swearing. Sakit is an Indonesian word that means disease and it is used to express pain.

There is the use of your mother when it comes to expressing pain. God curse your mother is one of the swearing phrases used to express pain to someone who has caused the pain that the person who is expressing the pain is talking about.

4.4 Swearing words used to express surprise

There are swearing words that are used to express surprise that make reference to scatology. For instance, Heilige ScheiAYe is a German phrase that means holy shit and it is used to express surprise. Merde is a French word that means shit. Ostia is a Spanish word that means shit. Shit is a common word that is used in swearing in the English language. Connard is a French word that means shithead and it is used to express surprise. Shit is an English word that is commonly used to express surprise.

Expletives are used to express surprise. For instance, what is it! is an English expletive used to express surprise. Wee apa ini!? is an Indonesian expletive that means what it is! and it is used to express surprise. Opo iki! is an Indonesian phrase that means what is! Iew! is an expletive that signifies that someone has found something to be of bad tasting.

Religious references are used by swearing words that are used to express surprise. Oh my God is a phrase used to express surprise and at the same time used in swearing. Gadverdomme is a German word that means God damn it and is used to express surprise. Jesus mary! and joseph! are two English expletives that make reference to Jesus Christ and Jesus Christs parents. Oh my god and Jesus Christ are some of the other swearing words and phrases that are used to express surprise and make reference to religion. Gadverdomme is a Dutch word that means God damn it. Oh my God is also a phrase an English phrase that is used in swearing. Gustii is an Indonesian word that means Oh my God and it is used to express surprise. 

5.1 Sources of swearing words

Words that are used in swearing often make references to certain sources, items, objects or things. The study revealed that in general, there are ten types of sources when it comes to swearing words. Sources of swearing words include animals, religion, scatology, sexual activity, sexual reproductive organs, body parts and functions, diseases, mental incapacity and loose morals. Results of the study revealed that European and Asian languages make different use of the source of swearing words. Asian cultures tend to make less use of the sources of swearing words whereas European languages tend to use a lot of the sources of the swearing words. Results of the study are in agreement with previous studies such as Sacher et al. (2012), Pinker (2010), Montagu (2001) and Ljung (2011). that have established that there are at least ten categories of sources associated with swearing words.

5.2 Use of taboo words in swearing

Taboo words have for many years been used in swearing. The study revealed that the use of taboo words in Asian and European language with regard to swearing is common. Taboo words are defined as words that are prohibited from being used by societal rules. In most societies, it is prohibited to use words about sexual activities or sexual reproductive organs in public. Conservative societies have more stringent rules when it comes to forbidding use of taboo words in public (Timothy, 2009).

European societies tend to be liberal and as a result, there are no strict rules that forbid use of taboo words in public. European liberal societies have played a major role increasing the number of taboo words that are used in European languages with regard to swearing. Results of the present study suggest that use of taboo words in swearing tends to be high in European languages when compared to Asian languages. Asian societies tend to be conservative whereas European societies tend to be liberal. The most common taboo words that are used in swearing among European languages are words that make reference to sexual activity, religion, mental incapacity and sexual reproductive organs. In liberal societies, people have developed a habit of using taboo words that are associated with religion when it comes to swearing. People in liberal societies have also developed a habit of using taboo words associated with sexual activity and sexual reproductive organs when it comes to swearing (Pinker, 2010). Results of the present study revealed that use of taboo words in swearing is more common among European languages than it is among Asian languages.

5.3 Swearing words associated with religion.

In liberal societies, there is a high use of taboo words that are associated with religion, sexual activities and sexual reproductive organs. In religious societies, the use of taboo words that are associated with religion is regarded as blasphemy. Some of the swearing words that make reference to religion as revealed in the present study include Oh my God and Godverdomme, a Dutch word that means Goddammit and Jesus Fucking Christ. Porca troia, is an Italian phrase that means Holy Shit. Gustii is an Indonesian word that means Oh my God. Jesus christus is a Dutch phrase that means Jesus Christ, Heilige ScheiAYe is a German phrase that means Holy shit. Verdammte ScheiBe, a German phrase that means fucking hell. Was zur HAlle is a German phrase that means What the hell. Astaga is an Indonesian word that means God! Fucking hell is an American English phrase that is used to express frustration. Porco dio is a strong Italian expression that means God is a pig. Me cago en Dios is a Spanish phrase that means I shit in God. Kabenzots is a Spanish word that means God damn it. Study participants of Finnish descent revealed that some swearing words that are used in Finnish are of religious origin. For instance, Perkele! is a Finnish expletive that originates from a Finnish god of thunder. Perkele! can be used to express strong emotions of anger, joy and frustration.

Based on the results of the present study, it can be firmly said that European languages are rich in swearing words that are considered taboo in religious terms. On the other side, it can firmly be said that Asian languages are not rich in taboo words that are associated with religion. There was no study participant in the present study who disclosed that taboo words associated with religion are used in swearing in any Asian language. The results of this study are in agreement with previous studies that have been done about use of swearing words in European languages and Asian languages that make reference to religion (Pinker, 2010).

5.4 Use of swearing words associated with sexual activities and sexual reproductive organs

In most conservative societies, people do not openly talk about sexual activities and sexual reproductive organs. In most conservative societies, use of religious jargon is treated with caution. Results of the present study concurred with previous studies that in Asian languages, there is less use of words associated with sexual activities and sexual reproductive organs when it comes to swearing. On the other hand, results of the present study affirmed that European languages use words associated with sexual activities and sexual reproductive organs in regard to swearing. The study revealed that use of the word fuck which means to engage in a sexual act is common among European languages when it comes to swearing. Val dood is a Dutch phrase that means fuck you. Vaffanculo is an Italian word that means fuck off. Putaaaaaaain is a French word that means f*******uck. Fututi is a Romanian word that means fuck you. Joder is a Spanish word that means fuck. Blet is a Russian word that means fuck. Merda or cagun la puta is a Spanish phrase that means I shit in the prostitute. Kut is a Dutch word that means cunt. Kutwijf is a Dutch word that means cunt. HYPERLINK "http://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=Picka%20ti%20materina" Picka ti materina is a Serb-Croatian phrase that means your mothers vagina. Vete a tomar por el pulo is a Spanish phrase that means Go get fucked in the ass. Study participants of Polish descent revealed that swearing words in Polish are strongly based on sexual organs and sexuality.

In both European and Asian languages, swearing words are used in reference to sexual activity and sexual reproductive organs. Most of the time, swearing words in reference to sexual reproductive organs is used when a person is emotionally charged. The study participants revealed that swearing words in reference to sexual reproductive organs are often used when a person is angry and when the person wants to show his or her aggression (Dewaele, 2006).

Swearing words that are mostly used to express anger are cathartic swearing words. Swearing words that are used to express anger in Asian and European languages are those that make reference to sexual activity. It was revealed that the word Fuck and its versions in other languages is the most common swearing word used to express anger (Sacher et al., 2012).

All European languages tend to use swearing words that make reference to sexual activity and sexual organ. It was revealed that swearing words in East European languages have a slight difference when compared to swearing words in West European languages. It has been established that East European languages tend to make references that are different when compared to West European languages. In Western Europe, where Romantic languages are spoken, references tend to be made to different domains when compared with Eastern European languages such as the Slavic language. Sexual language is often associated with violence. German, Polish and Spanish swearing words tend to make reference to sexual reproductive organs (Agha, 1999). Results of the present study are in agreement with previous studies about use of swearing words in European languages and Asian languages that make reference to sexual activities and sexual reproductive organs.

5.5 Swearing words associated with mental incapacity

In most conservative societies, people tend not to publicly judge a person for being mentally incapacitated. On the other side, in liberal societies, people see no problem when it comes to swearing by referring to a persons mental incapacity (Allan & Burridge, 2009). European languages are rich in swearing words that make reference to a persons mental incapacity.

Results of the present study revealed that kreten is a Bosnian word that means dumbest of the dumbest. Achterlijke is a Dutch word that means idiot. Debiel is a Dutch word that means moron. Dolboyob is a Russian word that means stupid guy. Idiotas is a Russian word that alludes that the person on the receiving end of the insult is foolish.

According to results of the present study, there are few Asian languages that refer to mental incapacity when it comes to swearing. In Malay, boodoh is a word that means silly and it is used to suggest that a person is unintelligent or mentally incapacitated. Based on the results of the study, it can be said that Asian languages make less use of mental incapacity as a source of swearing words. Results of the present study are in agreement with previous studies that have been done about use of swearing words in European languages and Asian languages that make reference to mental incapacity (Jay & Kushner 2001).

5.6 Swearing words associated with scatology

Scatology is a source of swearing words that are used both in Asian and European languages. Scatology is the study of excrement and excretion. Results of the present study revealed that swearing words make use scatology. Use of swearing words that make reference to scatology is popular in both Asian and European languages. Scheisse! is a German word that means shit. Mist is a German word that means dung. Kacke is also a German swearing word that means shit. Merde is a French word that means shit. ScheiAYe is a German word that means shit. Verdammte scheiAYe, is a German phrase that means damn shit. Heilige ScheiAYe is a German phrase that means Holy shit. Du scheiAYkerl is a Danish word that means shithead. Ostia is a Spanish word that means shit. Connard is a French word that means shithead. It can be deduced from the study that use of scatological terms in swearing is more common among European languages than it is among Asian languages. In the present study, no Asian language term that means shit was revealed as being used in swearing to express anger, frustration, surprise, shock or pain. Study participants of German descent revealed that swearing in German is mostly done by use of words that are scatological.

It can therefore, be confidently stated that use of scatological terms in swearing is more common among European languages than it is among Asian languages. Less use of scatological terms among European languages can be attributed to the fact that before modern times, Asian cultures had encouraged people to excrete in open areas and as such, many Asians grew up with the view that excrement is a normal part of human beings and therefore, there is nothing to be shocked or afraid about it. Most times in swearing, people use sources of items, objects or things that are disrespected or treated with stigma in society. Given that excrement is not treated with stigma among Asian societies, people see no use of over relying on it when it comes to swearing (Montagu, 2001).

According to Montagu (2001), swearing words in Mandarin are not of scatological origin. In traditional Chinese towns, most families did not own their own toilets. As a result, it was common for people to greet one another as they entered and left communal toilets. Therefore, scatological words in Mandarin are not mostly used in swearing. There are studies that...

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