The 2nd International Congress on Deaf Education took place in 1880 and this was when a declaration that oral education is better that manual education was made,
A resolution to ban sign languages was passed and US and Britain were the only countries opposed to it. The following are the 8 resolutions that the convent first passed:
1. The convention declared that the oral method was to be preferred to the one of signs in the instruction and education of deaf-mutes.
2. It was declared that pure oral method was to be preferred.
The remaining resolution tackled on instruction to impoverished deaf learners, how to orally instruct them, the requirement of instructional books for their teachers, benefits of the oral instructional, maximum ages for the oral instruction, and doing away with students who depend on sign instruction.
These results were fixed since the conference and organized and planned to do away with sign language. More than half of the members of the committee were oralists from Italy and France.
Even though there were other several topics that were there for discussions, the conference dwelt on the instruction methods. The resolutions were then made as soon as the presentations ended.
The effects were:
Teachers of the deaf lost their jobs
The fledgling National Association of the Deaf attracted many supporters since the deaf fought to save their language and culture
The president of University of Gallaudet (former College) decided to retain use of SL on the Gallaudet campus. This monumental decision may have been largely responsible for sign language's survival.
Long Term Impact
Milan 1880 has been commemorated in many artworks and thus has been of great importance to the history of deaf.
Gallaudet University hosted a conference in 1993. The conference was called ,Post Milan ASL and English Literacy. The theme of the conference was, Reflection upon Milan with an eye to the future. This was an essay written by Jankowski Catherine.
Since the year, one can argue that oralism and sign language have peacefully co-exited.
Social Issues Impacting ASL
When Addressing social issues that have affected ASL, social protocol, communication, entertainment, art, and recreation are points worth mentioning. Deaf people and oralists prefer to mingle and communicate with their own. Each kind has its own distinguished sign language and they assimilate the language into mainstream of hearing. The deaf will always go to residential schools that are only meant for the deaf. The end up picking a language from outside and develop and attitude that encompasses a given bias and anti-intellectual in given schools cliques; passing the information through grape-vine; joking and teasing; visual humor; and love for sports. Everyone has the chance to participate and be involved in tribal sports for the deaf. The deaf cannot access radio, media, and cinema and can only get together so as to get news, share information and entertain themselves. The deaf are not in a position to visit Deaf club for the purpose of watching captioned videos, gossiping and drinking.
Some deaf people have no belief in fully fledged culture the way Jews, Blacks, Italians, Indianas, Hispanics, or Americans have. The culture of ethnicity is generally passed to child from the parent. Many parents who can hear do not communicate with their child who is a deaf. Deaf people can eat, worship and act just like other Americans can. The only difference that exists is the language of communication. The social customs for the deaf are not only beaded in ancient religious, ethnic transitions, or nationals, but also the need for practical communication. In this regard, some people always prefer to refer to deaf culture as a subculture.
Deaf culture is still growing, ever-evolving and ever-changing. The deaf have for long been taking part in arts such as designing, sculpturing and painting.
Linguistic and Cultural Issues Impacting ASL
It is very impossible to learn ASL without learning culture and linguistic. And example can be in creation of old jokes which have deep meanings. The teacher should show a video for ASL Poetry, Drama, ASL classifiers and ASL jokes that are old.
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