Recently, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) has made efforts in revamping the educational cirriculum used including how international schools in the UAE can manage to sustain improved performance. The need for the improvement has been necessitated by the fact that there is lack of collaboration amongst principals, curriculum leaders, teachers and learners, which has consequently resulted in a situation whereby the boy-child has been neglected while priority is being placed on the girl child. There is a need to focus awareness, social and economic funding towards improving education outcomes in the boy-child. It also recognises the importance of according equal opportunities of learning to both girls and boys. Therefore, the research embarks on an important process, which is to study ways that performance can be improved in international schools particularly among boys. The research methods used is a systematic review, which encompasses critically analysing and summarising data in an attempt to reconcile evidence. The study also enrols one participant who will be the source from one of the many international learning institutions in the UAE. A precise sequence is used to obtain data in this research. It specifically uses the British Education Research Association (BERA) Guidelines. Its results are that girls are seemingly improving their academic performance while the performance of boys as stagnated and dropped. The findings are crosschecked using an interview that is conducted with a school principal. It recommends structural leadership as a means of combating the problem since it results in a learning environment that fosters shared decision-making that is done with the input of not only the institutional leaders, but also teachers and, the students. Teacher training is also an important strand that the UAE is looking to develop.
Chapter 1: Introduction
Background of the Problem
According to Bass (1985), in the education environment leadership is not only vital in inducing performance, but is also indispensable in shaping the character of learners. The claim has in the past prompted various educational stakeholders such as the ADEK - Department of Education and Knowledge in the UAE to institute education reforms, which are aimed at restructuring the curriculums, used to train teachers at training colleges and also look at how international schools in the UAE can manage to sustain improved performance. The Future Leaders Trust, an organisation based on the United Kingdom has also made steps to train school leaders on how to increase performance. The restructuring process is specifically aimed at incorporating instructional leadership into the curriculum (Litz, Juma, and Carroll, 2016). Leadership is equalled to having a clear vision of the future (Schaubroeck, Lam, and Cha, 2007). Hence, based on this definition, education stakeholders primarily focused on imparting leadership skills among trainee teachers while aiming at achieving pre-set goals and excellence in the education sector. Previously published literature asserts that the use of instructional leadership in schools results in high productivity since it has the ability to restructure organisational culture, augment efficacy and effectiveness. Based on the desired possibilities mentioned above, the focus of this paper is to analyse staff in an international school within the UAE, which can apply instructional leadership strategies and consequently improve performance.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
As per Alhebsi, Pettaway and Waller (2015), the education sector of the UAE assumes a significant part in the fulfilment of the country's objectives. It is for this reason that the UAE government continues to prioritise reforms and improvement to the sector since policies change rapidly. Even though literacy levels through education in the country have significantly improved since it was initially established, the country's public, as well as international education, continue to experience many obstacles. Moreover, the augmentation of learning systems is in accordance with the 2021 vision for socio-economic growth. One of the primary difficulties that face learning with regards to administration is the absence of collaboration amongst principals and learners (Iskander, Pettaway, Waller and Waller, 2016). The occurrence has resulted in a situation whereby the boy-child has been neglected while priority is being placed on the girl child. Family upbringing also plays a significant role in defining the educational achievements of a learner. Parent to boys in the UAE prefer that their young ones attend military training since they are guaranteed of a job upon completion. On the other hand, girls are well educated but in the long run their responsibility may be summarised as bringing young ones into the world and take care of their educational needs. There is need to focus awareness, social and economic funding towards improving education outcomes in the boy-child. The literature review reveals that in the UAE, education is valued as a national investment.
Chapter 2: Literature Review
2.1 The Place of Education in the UAE
In the UAE, education is valued as a national investment. The government places immense importance on education that it prioritises on the provision of input that will facilitate learning. As indicated by Judge and Piccola (2004), the significance of instruction is likewise premised by the way that it can move the nation into wanted levels of national strength and security. Furthermore, through instruction, the nation can develop diversity utilising learning foundations that are focused on the ideal goals (Warrington, Younger, and Bearne, 2006). Education enables the development of students through the training of teachers. Undoubtedly, the decision to undertake education reforms on the curriculum so as to include health education science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) career guidance, innovation, design, general skills and business management will significantly enhance the standards of education in the nation. At the moment, various stakeholders in the country's education sector, particular policymakers are keen and observant on potential issues that may form obstacles to the quality education. In addition, they assess to decide conceivable zones for future advancement, which can be utilised for better training results (Yang et al. 2016). Additionally, education in the country encourages active learning in place of passive learning. It places accentuation on the significance of learners having a dynamic commitment in class with their teacher (Al-Khaili et. al, 2012). It is, however, important to state that educators have a mandate to accord equal opportunities of learning to both girls and boys. They ought to be inspired to positively perform in their academics.
2.2 Content and Rationale
According to the Public Policy by Dr Racquel Warner, teacher professional development is fundamental in gearing up towards a world-class education system. Moreover, this notion was seconded by the head Adu Dhabi Education Council where he remarked that the primary objective is to guarantee students ideal learning opportunities that would lead to their desired careers while ensuring teachers remain competent and embrace innovative approaches by the teaching skills in the 21st Century. Equally important is the fact that the dynamics of the classroom are changing where technologies and multiculturalism prompt teachers to impart ways of working and thinking; implement tools for work, which includes information and communication technology; harness proficiency around life, career and citizenship and developing personal and social responsibility for success in modern democracies. In most cases, teachers are requested to employ teaching methods that they were never exposed to themselves. Conventionally, teacher training programs do not enhance the critical thinking skills, but instead, it transforms them into content specialists. Judge and Piccolo (2004) posit that these programs are also lacking in the endorsement of creativity and innovation since the primary focus is ensuring that students meet the defined grading criteria. Hence, there is need to develop appropriate teacher training courses which would encourage evidence-based outcomes adaptability, critical thinking, innovation and adaptability
As noted earlier, there has been the concern that boys in international schools in UAE have been performing poorly. As indicated by Jha, and Kelleher (2006), the event has been credited to different factors, for example, the absence of inspiration, which makes them less eager to work harder for an improved academic performance. While a number of social has supported the girl child and welfare programs meant to encourage them to seek education, the boy child has remained neglected. The occurrence has created a situation where many boys fail to understand and see the value of getting an education. It is important to educate girls since they will eventually raise children. Similarly, it is also important to educate boys since they will be able to gain employment.
For the occurrence to be mitigated there needs to be an overhaul of leadership approaches in an international school which will see them adopt new ones that will eventually be instrumental in motivating all students and not leaving out male learners.
This research will focus on how instructional leadership has a positive academic performance among male s...
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