Psychoanalytic Theories Paper Example

Paper Type:  Essay
Pages:  6
Wordcount:  1599 Words
Date:  2022-05-26

Qn.1 Sigmund Freud and Irrationality

Sigmund Freud has a view of human nature that the rulers attempt to have control of the crowds in a mass democracy age. The school of Frankfurt acclaim that the human life is not built-in the persons, however, it is amendable in relations of the society. The first individual to use the ideas of Freud's in the manipulation of the masses was Edward Barneys. The Nazi had a conviction that there was jeopardy in the democracy since it facilitates the selfish individualism. Furthermore, there were no ways of regulating it thus democracy is concerning the society dealing with (Sigmund 2013). There was a new alternative to capitalism proposed where the interest and feelings of the masses would be regulated although by means that would unite the citizens. The film uses Freud's personality structure theory by elaborating that the Id controlled by the aggression and desires of sex, which in turn repress the subconscious. The Id also regulates both the ego and the superego. The concepts of the irrationality of Freud is different from Herbert Marcuse's since Freud urges that the irrational behavior is the ID's instinctual unconscious behavior while Herbert Marcuse's argues that people have the freedom in their ego, at the same time it is integrated into the society.

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Qn.2 Critical Theory/Frankfurt School

The critical theory was at a period of interwar at the social research institute in 1923. The school comprised of dissidents of neo-Marxism who were uncomfortable with the fascist, communist system or the capitalism in place. Most of the theorist did not believe that the traditional theory would adequately explain the turbulent, as well as unpredictable capitalist society's development in the 20th C. The critical method, was based in the following philosophies; Kant who conducted theory and empirical studies, Marx's capitalism critique and Hegel who was a dielectric. These philosophies made acclamation that the workers were alienated and exploited, whereas it disguised the real operations of reason, democracy, and freedom ideologies. The critical theory thus originated from orthodox Marxism since it did not consider conflict class as the social change root. It can, therefore, be regarded as capitalist product domination that embraces social, political and intellectual critique. Critical theory was concerned with the examination of knowledge's nature (Farganis, 1996). It encourages the community to promote democracy; thus, realize their unique human potentials and creativity. Extensively, it is essential as it facilitates the familiarity in the application of the consumerism, mass culture and logic in technology.

Qn.3 One Dimensional Man / Herbert Marcuse

In one dimension man, Marcuse emphasizes some issues such as technological and rationality power in contrast to psychoanalytic. He notes that technical rationality is essential and limited by the social structures and institution. He makes a comparison of the technological rationality as irrational, where he contrasts the Weberian distinction among rationality of means and ends. He points out technical rationality as part of a new form of control (Farganis, 1996). Therefore technological rationality controls need creation, uniformity, rationality perpetuation, thus yielding a one-dimensional society form that is entirely irrational. Marcuse also differentiates the true and false needs. He considers any requirements that are related to consumer culture, advertising and wholly organized by the society as false needs. Therefore, such demands are created by the organization hence false. Additionally, he considers the false needs as irrational since there is impairment in the ability to understand them.

Qn.4 Escape from Freedom / Fromm

According to Fromm, in the book escape from freedom, there is an exploration of the relationship shifting of the humanity with liberty. It is about the absence consequences of the individuals. He makes the specific emphasis on the Nazism rise facilitating psychosocial conditions by distinguishing the negative freedom from positive freedom. In this case, he used the phrases "freedom from" and "freedom to" to refer to negative freedom and positive freedom respectively. According to Fromm, the conditions such as authoritarianism, destructiveness, and conformity are the conditions of escaping freedom. Such conditions are brought out by the personality contained by both elements of masochistic and sadistic. This is because "freedom from" is not an enjoyable experience. Fromm makes suggestions that most people try to reduce the freedom's adverse effects by creating thoughts and traits that give some security form.

Qn.5 Escape from Freedom / Fromm

In his book, Fromm explains why some social classes supported the Nazi. He illustrates that some business person was in fear of vulnerability to the fascism appeal. The small and medium investors felt threated by the superior capitalism overwhelming power which may have well continued to generate profits. The significant threat of maintaining their benefits as well as maintaining the independence added the powerlessness. In addition to this, the social class found the authoritarianism as comfortable thus supported the Nazi and the political, economic, and psychological conditions in which this occurred. Extensively, most of the people had bowed down to the Nazi regime with no resistance thus the social class had to comply and be supportive. This showed the psychological readiness towards the Nazi regime. Although he claimed Nazi to be a psychological problem, the mental conditions were known to be molded by socio-economic factors. The psychological conditions thus made the social class support the Nazism.

Qn.6 The Banality of Evil

Arendt's concept of the banality of evil was that the man she had seen and heard at the courtroom in Jerusalem was not Richard II Sort. He was not the man who had been set to "prove a villain." Arendt made use of the word thoughtless consistently to illustrate the banality in Eichmann. She concludes her notion of the banality evil through bureaucracy leans as the totalitarianism weapon. The banality made a reflection in Eichmann who was in the quagmire of the horrible deaths unspoken and undeniable man's ludicrousness who had caused perpetration to them. His testimony made a revelation of little motivation in vengeance and lust for power. He spoke of the non-existence of psychopathy trace and lack of pleasures sadism from the pain inflicted in the bureaucratic German. He spoke of his interest in moving up in the bureaucracy in Nazi.

Qn.7 Stanley Milgram Experiment

Shirer thesis that Milgram wanted to test was: "Germans have a basic character flaw...[which] is a readiness to obey authority without question" (Meyer, 2007). The thesis made a reflection on the ethnic biases which was frequent then as well as a demonstration of the lacked ignorance in the social nature. Experiments made by Milgram made the revelation that most people are defiant to the authority to a certain degree. Some people are convinced that they are an exception because their egocentrism envelops them. There is an urge to take away something from their level. Individuals should recognize themselves laying emphasis that they are of differing philosophical traditions which create a sense of self-awareness. Inability to handle a situation is being dishonest to you and lacking awareness. She concludes that blindly following the authority can result in serious consequences to people.

Qn.8 The Lucifer Effect

Zimbardo's level of analysis explains that some people do not consider or view themselves as evil. They are rather compelled to achieve the evilness by certain situations. Such conditions include obeying blindly, which forces others to commit the atrocities. He argues that conditions or circumstances that attract people to evilness are not imaginable (Watson, 1973). He says that there exist boundaries between the good and evil; thus, people have the freedom to cross either. One would tend to conquer with him that there is the capacity of people for evil and love. The situation one is in determines whether he commits evil or not. Therefore, he has a perception that people are seduced into sinning.

Qn.9 Disobedience and Freedom / Fromm

The authoritarian conscience differs from humanistic conscience as illustrated by Fromm. The authoritarian conscience originates from the taboos and commands of the authority. Its strength is based on the fear of emotions and authority admiration. On the other hand, humanistic conscience is our voice, familiar to every human being. It is also rewards and external sanctions independent (Funk, 2000). It therefore not the authority's internalized voice which individuals fear defying. The authoritarian conscience works in a way that it influences the people's readiness to adhere to instructions to power. For instance, the people follow the laws and orders stipulated.

Qn.11 "The Coming Revolt of the Guards" / Howard Zinn

Zinn argued America is the most ingenious system of control in the world history. This is because it was a wealthy and powerful country. For instance, it has the workforce, talented people and natural resources that help in distributing wealth. Extensively, it is powerful because it can guarantee freedom to its citizen. U.S government doles out only the required amount of money the adequate people to minimize chances of full-scale revolution to achieve control. Additionally, the America elites who are powerful are custodians of colliding the middle and working classes against each other. Extensively, the elites strengthen their authority to the citizens by use of patriotism alongside war threats. The American people mobilize on the establishment in periods of crisis, giving evidence on the considerable ability to resist to helpless individuals.


Farganis, J. (1996). Readings in Social Theory: The Classic Tradition to Post-Modernism. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Funk, R. (2000). Erich Fromm: His Life and Ideas. New York: Continuum.

Meyer, P. (2007). "If Hitler Asked You to Electrocute a Stranger, Would You? Probably" Down to Earth Sociology: Introductory Readings. Ed. James M. Henslin. 14th ed. New York: Free Press, 269-276.

Sigmund Freud (RLE: Freud). (2013). doi:10.4324/9781315871431

Watson, J. (1973). An investigation into deindividuation using a cross-cultural survey technique. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 25, 342-345.

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