1. Scenario: You are asked to present a 2-hour workshop to your local group of ASL teachers or your local chapter. Include your outline and references and provide examples and explanations of the topic you choose. a. Choose one linguistic principle (e.g., LOCATIVES, PLURALITY, SUBJECTS & OBJECTS, TOPICALIZATION, CLASSIFIERS, etc.). Prepare a 1-2 page report explaining the principle.
I choose CLASSIFIERS. A classifier can be defined as a linguistic symbol which represents a certain group or class of subjects or objects. It is used to represent a noun as it is a pronoun. It can be used to make clarification of messages, offer a proper way of passing information, and highlighting given details
There are several ways where classifiers can be used. They include:
They can be used to describe the shape and size of a given object.
They can be used to represent the specific object.
They can demonstrate the motion of the object.
They can demonstrate how the object relates to people and other objects.
The locative relationship is the English equivalent (preposition). Spoken or written classifiers words representing a category of people, places, or things in American Sign Language.
Examples of locative classifiers include the following:
LCL-C/LCL-B "place cup on napkin"LCL-5 "leaf floating to the ground"LCL-1 (sticks) "one here-one here"LCL-B "shelf" (over to the right)LCL-1 "goal-posts"(2h) LCL-L "adjust a picture"
Descriptive Classifiers (DCL) are also known as size and shape specifies. (SASSes). They describe a person or object. DCL-B (or bent B) extremely short (Explanation: to represent the descriptive classifier extremely short you hold the bent B and low in the air while using an appropriate facial expression.) Other examples are here on the slide of the PowerPoint. Students can sign this syntax in Classifiers.
DCL-1 one line on it
DCL-5 claw flowery
DCL-4 claw small dots
b. Now explain how you introduce/teach/evaluate this principle to students in your ASL class.
When discussing the social issues that have impacted ASL, I will give to the student Auslan, Australian Sign language, as an example of community that is going through an important and significant change. The community has in the past been seeing itself as an isolated minority. But recent technological and social influences, for example, telecommunications technology, cochlea implants and mainstreaming have changed and continue to change how the deaf community socialize, communicate and identify. These influences when brought together with technological advances in genetics and medical care are rapidly doing away with deafness altogether. The Auslan has used its agency to re-affirm its own self and has demonstrated how the themes of control, power and dominance have shown itself in the lives of deaf people in Australia. While illustrating the resilience and strength of the community which is galvanized by language, shared history, world view and identity, the community is also concerned about future development, which is signified by disconnection, and diminishing sense of the identity of the deaf..
Teacher would show different pictures of shape, size, and usage objects also locative pictures through a PowerPoint to all students and introduce one sign at a time.
The students are asked to copy the teachers signs, after that the teacher would encourage students to try and sign the classifiers relating to the pictures, if the students are not sure then teacher can demonstrate the signs.
Teacher gives an example of Locative Classifiers, which shows placement or spatial information about an object, sometimes indicating movement. These sentences would be on the slide of the PowerPoint.
The students acquire knowledge of classifiers and locative classifiers.
Teacher explains ASL is a unique language with its grammatical rules and syntax (sentence structure). In ASL, the entire body is used expressively to convey information. What ASL you have to abandon English thinking and think visually. (Moore & Levitan, 1993).
Teacher asks the students to sign the sentence in ASL grammar and how to use classifiers as visual-spatial language that shares no grammatical similarities to English.
Teacher gives one paragraph of the practice descriptive adjective and classifiers also locative classifiers. The students read the paragraph then express in ASL classifiers and locative use in ASL grammar. Divide the class, Students work and analyze the story and how to use the classifiers, after that student present it to the class. Teachers can see if the students can express in ASL and Classifiers. Teacher would give a lot of feedback.
Teacher assigns 3 or 4 paragraphs for 2 students in a group to practice in class, after that they can show it to their fellow students. If students keep signing in English then encourage them to write it on the whiteboard using Time, Topics (object), Pause (Subject), and Comment (verb). It helps them to visual ASL not English.
Teacher introduces and explains what are the glossed as CL: followed by a standard or modified hand shape (coded in English notation), for example, 1-CL, 1CL, (2h)4:-CL, 2-CL, 3-CL, B-CL, (2h)4t-CL, 5-CL, 1:-CL, 5:-CL, (2h)5twg-CL, 5:-CL, B-CL, 2-CL, BCL, 3CL, 2:-CL, and 3-CL, LCL-1, LCL-B, LCL-L, (2h)LCL-L, and LCL-5. The transcription symbols have their meaning when you see an arrow it means its moving forward. If its just a dash this means to stay at the location, not moving at all. When you see the arrow down it means your palm orientation is faced down in the opposite direction of the arrow up as the palm orientation faced up. The symbol is wg, which means wiggle including the two hands (2h). The palm orientation faced outward when you see arrow right. Read the symbol of: that means the hand bends following the number or letter to represent anything related to animals, and objects.
If students can understand the transcription symbols then they can read ASL grammar with transcription symbols with written transcription. Students would read and sign the whole sentence. Here are some examples of ASL grammar for classifiers and locative.
1. STORE 5:-CL@rt, I LIVE ACROSS-TO-lf.
2. #DOG, CAT THEY-2 PLAY (2h)alt.2:-CLjump around.
3. I SHOE I SEARCH++, FIND TABLE C-CLunder B-CL
4. STORE APPLE HAVE (2h)1CLin a row.
5. WALL PICTURE I PREFER BCLlower, rtBCL upper, lf.
6. #DOG COMPETE, SHOW, #DOG 44:-CL.
7. BEACH+fsBEACH I TEND SLEEP 2-CL.
8. FRIEND MY 3-CLwalk up rt-TEASE-me.
9. MY BOOK, I LEAVE-IT-lf B-CL.
10. WALL+WRITE I NEED fs-CHALK 1CL-lf, ctr, rt.
HOUSE, CAT 2:-CL on top. 5:-CL
GARAGE, TRASH CC-CL C-CL behind garage.5:-CL
FENCE, IX-rt BOW-AND-ARROW 1CL through fence 4-CLfence.
BED, BOX++ B-CLunder bed++.
SOFA, TABLE B-CL------5:-CLnext to sofa.
far from/apart from
CHURCH PARKING 3CL@far, rt., 5:-CL@lfReferences:
Moore, Matthew & Levitan, Linda. (1993). For Hearing People Only. Rochester, New York: Deaf Life Press.
Riggs, Tom. (2003) Introduction to the Linguistics of ASL. Sign of Development CD #1 & #2.NUMBER 2
2. Scenario: In ASL 1 class, I am teaching. In about three weeks, some students asked me to explain why Deaf people they sign with outside of class dont sign the way I am teaching. The student says that Deaf people sign differently than how I am teaching.
List & Explain in depth at least 3 of the possible variations in signing the student may be experiencing/observing and give the reasons these variations occur. Also, explain how you handle/approach this situation with students.
I would explain and handle the situation with the students. I would draw the map of the United States on the whiteboard. I would then write a soda pop on the state of California, and pop on the state of Pennsylvania. The way of people speak different accent is the way the region is. Its the same concept as dialect, each and every region has its own sign language. Also in Florida, when you drive on the highway to see the sign, the warning says Car Crash. In comparison to California, it says Car Accident that is how they speak the different accent and language. It applies to sign for donut. There are so many signs for Donuts. In Pennsylvania, they sign the letter D then open up C on the eye and cheek. The other region will sign the handshape of R and move from the start to the semi circle. The important thing is for the teacher to show how different regional sign for PIZZA, DONUT, KETCHUP, HALLOWEEN, CHRITSMAS, BIRTHDAY, AND OUTSIDE so that the students would be aware of the variety of signs while the teacher introduces the new vocabulary of any lessons.There is no right or wrong.
I would teach, What is a language. A language is a system of relatively arbitrary symbols and grammatical signals that change across time and that members of a community share and use for several purposes: to interact with each other, to communicate their ideas, emotions, and intentions, and to transmit their culture form generation to generation. I would explain and expand the meaning under the line of the words. System is handshape, palm orientation, location, movement and non-manual signals. Arbitrary is the signs that has no picture or explain the meaning for example, SISTER and HONOR that a lot of hearing people would not understand the signs when they see the first time. In compare to iconic, it has pictures to explain and easy to understand what signs are for example, BABY, CRY, DRINK, and EAT. Grammatical signals means using the eyebrows to show the facial expression. The lower eyebrows; lean head forward is wh-word question. The raise eyebrows; lean head forward is yes/no question. I would write the draw the line of the across time 1800s 1900s 2000s, I would put EAR+CLOSE BETWEEN 1800S TO 1900S also I put DEAF UNDER 2000S. TELEPHONE AND WATCHES UNDER 1800S TO 1900S also TELEPHONE, WATCHES, and IPHONE. I show the different signs for each word under the years. I would explain that the deaf people were born at that year, what the technology and environment have changed over the years.
When you meet the deaf people to see their different signs, you would look at the age when they were born, regions and dialect, also where they attend the oral, mainstream or deaf school. Thats how they influence the signs to the deaf people. In Oral school, most deaf people would use only speech and mouth movement, and sometimes they tend to use the hands movement without any realization. Most often they sign in English but its in ASL at the same time. It looks like its formal or high class of showing the intelligent.
Some people would use only fingerspelling, others are signed English Mixed with American Sign Language (ASL) and Pidgin Signed English (PSE) in mainstream school. It could be influencing by the interpreters who is strongly signing in English so the deaf person will learn from the interpreter, it has no other deaf people or deaf teacher around the deaf student. There is limited environment where it influences their sign skills. The deaf school would use the strongly ASL and play around with ASL to create something for the words and set up their own dialect, for example, the deaf person would need to create the sign for UNDERWEAR, they must make a new signs because not want anyone to catch what they talk about or discuss about the UNDERWEAR. Most deaf people will figure it out and already know what signs are for UNDERWEAR. Again, its deaf culture, would discuss anything relating to their personal. Even it gains so many signs for UNDERWEAR.
There are differences between the ASL usage of a college graduate and an uneducated grassroots- Deaf person. Also there is different ASL level of status of jobs...
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