Health Impacts of Worksite Wellness Program Among Employees
This annotated bibliography is about The Health and Cost Benefits of Work Site Health-Promotion Programs
Goetzel, R. Z., & Ozminkowski, R. J. (2008). The Health and Cost Benefits of Work Site Health-Promotion Programs. Annual Review of Public Health, 29, 1, 303-323.
This article reviews the state of work in the Work Site Health Promotion (WHP). This article looks into the factors that impact on the productivity and health of workers. The article begins by defining (WHP), and after that follows a review of the literature that speaks about the business logic for it, and the barriers as well as the objections that prevent sufficient investment and funding of WHP. Though there are methodological limitations, the literature recommends that if properly designed, WHP can be of great help in increasing the productivity and health of workers. The article also describes the features of effective programs that can be used to assess the need for attracting participants, services, and how to make efforts that will measure the impact the program has on workers. The article also shows that less than 7% of workers use program components that are required for successful interventions.
This article has been chosen for this annotated bibliography because of the need for a better science that can be used in evaluating programs outcomes. Also, this article stresses on the federal initiatives that support the cost effectiveness in the course of investing in healthy working environments. The initiatives that support cost effectiveness have also been outlined to compliment on individual based interventions.
Other related articles on this topic include;
Fielding, J. E. (May 01, 1984). Health Promotion and Disease Prevention at the Worksite. Annual Review of Public Health, 5, 1, 237-265.
Glanz, K., & Bishop, D. B. (2010). The Role of Behavioral Science Theory in Development and Implementation of Public Health Interventions. Annual Review of Public Health, 31, 1, 399-418.
This annotated bibliography is about the long term impacts of the Johnson & Johnson Health and Wellness Programs on health care utilization and expenditures.
Ozminkowski, R. J., Ling, D., Goetzel, R. Z., Bruno, J. A., Rutter, K. R., Isaac, F., & Wang, S. (2002). The long-term impact of Johnson & Johnson's Health & Wellness Program on health care utilization and expenditures. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine / American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 44, 1, 21-9.
This article looks at the long term effects of corporate wellness and health. This is because most evaluations mostly focus on impacts that range from between one and two years after the program is initiated. The project mostly focused on Medicare expenditures and utilizations. In this case, there was a follow up on the employees for close to five years and four years after the implementation of the program. The study results showed a reduction in medical expenditures by approximately $224.66 over the four-year period. The benefits came from fewer outpatient visits; less mental health visits, and reduced in patient visits. These benefits were compared with a baseline period in which they took place in the three and four years after the program was initiated.
This article has been chosen for this bibliography because it is better integrates wellness, disability, occupational health and medical benefits. It also shows how health and wellness programs can produce better economic and health benefits in the later years.
Other articles related to this topic include;
Goetzel, R. Z., Anderson, D. R., Whitmer, R. W., Ozminkowski, R. J., Dunn, R. L., Wasserman, J., & Health Enhancement Research Organization (HERO) Research Committee. (1998). The relationship between modifiable health risks and health care expenditures. An analysis of the multi-employer HERO health risk and cost database. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 40, 10,
Goetzel, R. Z., Roemer, E. C., Tabrizi, M., Liss-Levinson, R., & Samoly, D. K. ( 2010). How Behavioral and Biometric Health Risk Factors Can Predict Medical and Productivity Costs for Employers. 287-314.
This bibliography is about the effects of the Highmark workers health and wellness programs on four-year healthcare costs.
Naydeck, B. L., Pearson, J. A., Ozminkowski, R. J., Day, B. T., & Goetzel, R. Z. (2008). The impact of the Highmark employee wellness programs on 4-year healthcare costs. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine / American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 50, 2, 146-56.
The journals objective was to establish the ROI of Highmark Inc.s workers health and wellness programs. The authors of this journal used the growth curves to analyze and compare the medical claims of all the employees that participated in the wellness programs. The results were also compared with the risk-matched nonparticipants from years 2001-2005. The difference between the two was used by the authors to delineate savings. From the results, the healthcare expenses per person were estimated at the cost of $176 which was lower for the participants. On the other hand, the inpatient costs were lower as compared to the program expenses that yielded a ROI of $1.65 for any dollar used on the program. This study suggested that an all-inclusive health program can help in lowering the health costs by producing a positive ROI.
This article was chosen for this bibliography because it demonstrates how a well-conceived wellness and health program focusing on prevention, risk factor reduction, disease management, and self-care can produce significant benefits for the employees and their employers. It also shows how expenditure on health and wellness can be reduced through improved coordination of the existing productivity and health management programs, with most benefits stirring in the later years.
Other articles that relate to the same include;
Aldana, S. G. (January 01, 2001). The financial impact of health promotion programs: a comprehensive review of the literature. American Journal of Health Promotion: Ajhp, 15,5.)
Breslow, L., Fielding, J., Herrman, A. A., & Wilbur, C. S. (January 01, 1990). Worksite health promotion: its evolution and the Johnson & Johnson experience. Preventive Medicine, 19, 1, 13-21.
This bibliography talks about how the health and wellness programs can be used to generate savings.
Baicker, K., Cutler, D., & Song, Z. (2010). Workplace wellness programs can generate savings. Health Affairs (Project Hope), 29, 2, 304-11.
Having so much money spent on health, there has been a growing interest in disease wellness and prevention at the workplace to lower costs and improve health. This study did a meta-analysis on the costs and savings that are brought about by health programs. The study found out that medical expenditures fall by about $3.27 for each dollar spent on health and the rates of absenteeism fall by $2.73 for each dollar spent. The study also shows that a wider adoption of heath programs can by far prove beneficial for productivity and budgets. The programs can also improve the health outcomes.
This article was chosen for this bibliography because it gives a critical review of how employer-based health and wellness initiatives can improve health and increase in substantial savings of costs even in the short run. The article also shows how subsidizing the health and wellness programs by the government can be a great way of reducing health costs without rationing the health care. The article also helps the stakeholders in the health sector understand the elements that make the programs more successful and the hurdles. This could help in smoothening the pathway for future funding that will be an avenue for improving healthcare and productivity.
Other articles related to this topic include;
McPeck, W., Ryan, M., & Chapman, L. S. (January 01, 2009). Bringing wellness to the small employer. American Journal of Health Promotion: Ajhp, 23, 5.)
Pomeranz, Jennifer L. (June 01, 2015). Participatory Workplace Wellness Programs: Reward, Penalty, and Regulatory Conflict. Milbank Quarterly, 93, 2, 301-318.
This bibliography is a study of the health-related results that arise from a Multi-Component Worksite Health Promotion Program
Heaney, C. A., & Goetzel, R. Z. ( 1997). A review of health-related outcomes of multi-component worksite health promotion programs. American Journal of Health Promotion: Ajhp, 11, 4.)
This article critically analyses an evaluation of the effects related to health such as reduction in employee absenteeism and modifications of health risks of the worksite healthcare promotion programs. A comprehensive literature from the Centres for Disease Control was examined. A total of 47 articles in total were used in this review whereby the studies described the results of thirty-five worksite wellness and health programs. Though all the articles reviewed showed variations in intensity, duration of intervention and comprehensiveness, they were all able to provide health education to the workers. In most of the health programs, the workers were given an opportunity to practice and learn new skills that were being offered. Moreover, a few programs also incorporated some modifications into the physical work environment. Results from the study also show that giving opportunities for singular risk reduction counseling for each employee can be a critical component in the provision of an effective worksite health and wellness promotion program. This is because offering short duration health programs with low-intensity such programs designed to increase the awareness of the wellness and health issues may not be able to achieve the desired outcomes.
This article was used for this research because it provided a thoughtful assurance about the effectiveness of the worksite programs and general guidelines on the critical characteristics and components of successful worksite programs. This article also recommends that a rating of acceptance best describes this literature.
This bibliography is about Worksite Health Promotion Programs in the U.S.: Factors Associated with Availability and Participation
James, W. G., Toni, A., Martin, R. P., & Lawrence, R. M. (September 01, 1998). Worksite Health Promotion Programs in the U.S.: Factors Associated with Availability and Participation. American Journal of Health Promotion, 13, 1, 36-45.
This article examines how the participation in the health and wellness worksite programs varies as a function of health characteristics (high blood pressure), individual age, and occupation. This study also compared the two previous reports from the national analysis of private companies. The subjects chosen for this survey were selected in terms of general availability in medical conditions, blood pressure, body mass index and general health condition. Out of the chosen population for the study, the smoking cessation programs showed the highest mean availability of 43%. This was followed by the health programs at 31% and the screening tests at 31%. The overall results showed the availability of worksite programs comparable to those reported in the recent survey conducted at the national level. Besides, the results also showed that the participation by healthy workers to be lower than unhealthy workers. Lastly, from the study, participation also depended on less on the organizational and individual characteristics.
This article was chosen for this annotated bibliography it explains the reasons as to why participation by the site workers in the health programs should be increased. The article suggests that participation is done beyond organizational variables, individual variables as well as health var...
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