Education is transformative and the government undertakes the initiative to ensure that significant outcomes are achieved in the education sector (Gide, Wu & Wang, 2010). People understand that by investing in education, they can transform themselves and the society in which they live. The government internalizes education to ensure an increased range of transformation. As defined by Lin (2019) internalization of education is the incorporation of various cultural setups to the field of research, education and institutions' functions. According to Tan (2009), the greatest goal of internalizing higher education in China is to transform the mindset of people, society, and the entire country. Chinese understands that by improving the standards of education, the country will achieve greater and increased growth (Greene & Lidinsky, 2018). Learning English in China has the same effect of transforming the Chinese people because being a country whose national language is non-English; it experiences several problems in terms of collaborating and communicating with foreigners (Hong, 2018). Hence, by teaching the English language, the government aims at increasing collaboration strategies. Moreover, the internationalization will make China the best-suited country in modernization and globalization.
The following are the research questions for the research proposal;
What are the goals of internationalizing higher education and university English teaching in China?
What us the orientation of internationalization of higher education and university English teaching in China?
What are the trend and the challenges faced in the internationalization of higher education and university English teaching in China?
Research Objectives and Statement of Problems
The research objectives guide the research on the items to achieve in the study. In this regard, objectives give directions, and for this research study the following are the objectives;
To investigate the goals of internationalizing higher education and university English teaching in China?
To understand the orientation of internationalization of higher education and university English teaching in China?
To identify the trend and the challenges faced in the internationalization of higher education and university English teaching in China?
Currently, the areas of communication, research, global forces, and economies are undergoing a period of expansion and global reconfiguration (Huang, 2003). Such changes require the adoption of a comprehensive plan for the internalization of education. However, there is no clear direction on motivations and purpose that drives the agenda (Lin, 2019). It is hence critical to assess the goals and the orientation of internationalization.
Literature review entails the scrutinization of literature about the topic under study. In this study, the paper intends to review the literature on the goals and orientation of internationalization of higher education and teaching of higher education English in China. According to Lin (2019), China ranks top among the countries that have students who have studied overseas. Statistics show that by 2010, China had accomplished 121,500 scientific publications. The implication is that many Chinese have studied outside their country. Lin (2019) posited that in the US, the highest number of international students are Chinese comprising of 31.2% in 2015. Conversely, in 2013, the number of international students in China was 356,499 originating from 200 countries.
China started to absorb western culture, and this consequently led to the incorporation of the western system of education (Larbi & Fu, 2017). Shanghai Saint John's University was the first university to incorporate the western education system. Currently, Chinese universities are offering courses taught in English to integrate well with the increasing number of international students (Tan, 2009).
Internalizing Higher Education
Adapting in this competitive world requires higher knowledge and skills for one to fit that is why countries like China have come up with internalization of higher education and teaching of English in their institutions (Lin, 2019). Internalization has been a complex term, and researchers have been in a crossroads trying to figure out the precise definition. Knight has rephrased the definition of the internalization of higher education a couple of times. Her latest version of internalization is to combine intercultural techniques in the teaching and learning process, research in higher education (Knight, 2006). Yang (2016) defined the internalization of higher education as the westernization of higher education. Westernization meant that schooling in countries like China and Japan would adapt to teaching methodologies from western nations like the USA and UK.
Goals of Internalizing Higher Education
The goals of internalizing higher education and university English teaching in china are diverse. According to Yang, Webster, and Prosser (2011), internalization will come with various practical benefits, and interchangeable literature use will bring cultural diversification. By doing this, China will be ranked internationally with the level of education they will be providing. Besides, it boosts them in recruiting massive international students. Pyvis and Chapman (2007) researched why most students prefer going to study abroad and found that learners have a mentality that if the study abroad universities, they will be on the competitive edge in the job sector. International students pay more tuition money as compared to indigenous students (Chen & Lo, 2013). As a matter of fact, in some countries, indigenous students receive free tuition.
Internalizing higher education in china will help in improving the university reputation to internationally recognized standards. As stated by Frolich (2006), he mentioned that the main aim of internalizing higher education is not necessarily for economic gain but instead attain academic quality. The provision of culturally rich knowledge achieves the quality of education in diverse ways.
Challenges Faced in the Internalization of Higher Education
Some universities that receive students on scholarship terms have started to charge them fees hence making it difficult for the students to raise the fees while studying (Wu, 2018). In this regard, it becomes a barrier, and some students opt to drop out. Countries like Norway have increased visa fees for international students. More nations are holding talks on free tuition for the locals, while international students are on the verge of receiving a rise in their fees.
International students can try to limit critics of their country in the country they are settled in (Wu, 2001). For example, the Chinese government, in conjunction with Chinese student groups in Australia, have been blamed for trying to reduce criticism of china. Such criticism and blame will, in the future, affect the internalization of higher education and English teaching in a university in china, recruitment of international students, and diversification of culture, especially in universities where academic freedom isn't guaranteed.
Countries like the Netherlands that started internalization and teaching of English long before china have regretted the decision and have begun limiting the number of international students in their universities (Yang, 2016). We are afraid that china might or will, in the long run, take after the Netherlands. Other countries like Germany have lamented the negative impact the English language is making on the quality of teaching. Social scientists have raised their worries that publishing in English international academic journals is making it difficult for them to stay on their course (Yang, 2016). Some authors have argued that English may remain the dominant language in scientific research and scholarship, but its dominance is making a hit on the ceiling.
Significance of the Study
The study will be essential in addressing the existing challenges and further enlightening the education sector on matters of internationalization of higher education and University English Teaching in China. Hence, the study will be useful in improving the status of education internationalization in China, and other countries can use the study as a case study.
This study intends to apply quantitative research methods. The research design for this study will be the survey questionnaire. The sample population will be the administration in the Chinese Universities. Hence, it will include 30 respondents from 5 institutions. Majorly, the focus will be the head of departments and the dean of various schools. Analysis of data collected through survey questionnaires will be analyzed using Excel and SPSS software.
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