Exposure to Chemicals in Plastic from Bottled Water: Annotated Bibliography

Paper Type:  Annotated bibliography
Pages:  5
Wordcount:  1273 Words
Date:  2022-06-23

Introduction

Being convenient for everyday use, plastic bottles are popular for packing and packaging water. This is because, to some people, plastic bottles taste better and are quite easy to handle. However, their use has been associated with exposure to certain chemicals that are harmful for human consumption. Mainly, plastic bottles contain a chemical known as bisphenol A (BPA) which is used to make plastics clear and hard. The chemical is an endocrine disruptor which interferes with the normal functioning of the endocrine system. BPA interrupts the normal processes and development of neurological and immune system but majorly targets the reproductive system. In addition to BPA, bottled water also contains phthalates chemical which is popular in the United States to make polyvinyl chloride more flexible. Phthalates are also an endocrine-disrupting chemical that has been associated to disruption normal growth. As such, the use of bottle water exposes people to certain chemicals that are harmful for their life and cause serious illnesses which may lead to death.

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Annotation

Marcussen, H., Holm, P. E., & Hansen, H. C. (2013). Composition, flavor, chemical foodsafety, and consumer preferences of bottled water. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 12(4), 333-352.

Since 2004, there has been an increase of consumption of bottled water by about 5.5 percent. This growth has been caused by the belief that bottled water is healthier than tap water. The aim of this study was to compare the safety of bottled water and tap water. The authors compared the safety of different types of water by comparing their chemicals and ions. The study found that although people prefer bottled water due lack of organisms it was established that bottled water has problems which comes from by-products of ozonation and by-products such as lubricants, geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol used in the bottling industries. This study is relevant for this research since it will provide a platform for argument between the tap water and bottled water.

Al-Saleh, I., Shinwari, N., & Alsabbaheen, A. (2013). Phthalates residues in plastic bottled waters. The Journal of toxicological sciences, 36(4), 469-478.

The aim of this study was to determine the amount and presence of phthalates in 9 different brands of water in Saudi Arabia market. The study also examined the effects of storage on the level of phthalates. The study used the analytical method to investigate the safety of water and the individual chemical components. the level of phthalates was measured by headspace solid phase micro extraction which was followed by mass spectrometer. It was found that there was high level of phthalates in bottled water which increased when the products were stored at 4 degrees Celsius. The authors recommended that these chemicals are likely to cause endocrine disruptions, especially in vulnerable populations such as pregnant women and infants.

Konieczna, A., Rutkowska, A., & Rachon, D. (2015). Health risk of exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA). Roczniki Panstwowego Zakladu Higieny, 66(1).

The major aim of this study was to examine the source and the effects of bisphenol A. notably, BPA is used as a monomer in polycarbonate and also used in as plasticizer to make plastics strong. As a result of phenolic structure, bisphenol A has been revealed to interrelate with receptors of estrogen and act as antagonist or agonist or through estrogen receptor (ER) dependent signaling pathways. As such, bisphenol A has been proved to have a significant role in the pathogenesis of numerous endocrine disorders which include male and female infertility and precocious puberty.

Qian, N. (2018). Bottled Water or Tap Water? A Comparative Study of Drinking Water Choices on University Campuses. Water, 10(1), 59.

This was a comparative study of to examine water drinking behaviors of university students in Hong Kong, Singapore, and Macau. The aim of the study was to test the preference of students between filtered tap water and bottled water. A quantitative survey was used to learn about the behavior and perceptions of university. The study found that most students use bottled water because of convenience and availability, safety, and hygiene. This article is useful in this study since it shows the factors and the perception which determine the choices of what type of water people consume.

Mortula, M. M. (2013, March). Health Risk Assessment of PET Bottles in GCC. In Proceedings of World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology (No. 75, p. 300). World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology (WASET).

According to this article, bottle water is gaining popularity, especially in gulf countries. On the same note, concern over harmful chemical are increasing. The main aim of this article was to investigate the exposure assessment and toxicity of diethyl phthalate in water and characterize their risks on human health. This article is important for this study since it forms the basis through which the researcher will determine the extent of risk in bottled water and provide significant recommendations

Islam, N., & Habib, M. (2013). Health beliefs and motivating factors to buy bottled water: A case study of the university students of Bangladesh.

The aim of this research paper is to investigate factors behind the consumption of bottled water in Bangladesh. According to the study, most people from Bangladesh are illiterate and semi illiterate hence the factors that motivate them to buy water depends on other factors such as luxury but not health benefits. The article will be used by the researcher to identify the reason why the use of bottled water is spreading despite the information that they have chemicals that are harmful for human consumption.

Are Plastic Drink Bottles Safe to Reuse for Drinking Water?. (2018). Retrieved from http://homeguides.sfgate.com/plastic-drink-bottles-safe-reuse-drinking-water-79290.html

This website provides an overview of the possible consequences of plastic which are currently being used as the main method of packaging. Plastics which contain BPA are responsible of altering the effects of endocrine system which may interfere with the normal growth of individuals. On the same note, components of plastics have been associated with cancer hence not safe for humans. This website is useful in determining the effects of plastics not only in water production but also in other beverages.

7 Reasons Never to Drink Out Of a Plastic Bottle. (2018). Retrieved from https://www.msn.com/en-us/health/wellness/7-reasons-never-to-drink-out-of-a-plastic-bottle/ar-AAqBhDw

This website points out seven core reasons why people should not drink out of plastic. It points out that plastic have chemicals that raise the risk of heart diseases and other illnesses which are related to circulatory issues. It firmly points out the high levels of BPA as a chemical which can trigger hypertension. This website is important for this research since it provides several reasons why plastic is harmful and will be used to make important recommendations.

References

7 Reasons Never to Drink Out Of a Plastic Bottle. (2018). Retrieved from https://www.msn.com/en-us/health/wellness/7-reasons-never-to-drink-out-of-a-plastic-bottle/ar-AAqBhDw

Al-Saleh, I., Shinwari, N., & Alsabbaheen, A. (2013). Phthalates residues in plastic bottled waters. The Journal of toxicological sciences, 36(4), 469-478.

Are Plastic Drink Bottles Safe to Reuse for Drinking Water?. (2018). Retrieved from http://homeguides.sfgate.com/plastic-drink-bottles-safe-reuse-drinking-water-79290.htmlIslam, N., & Habib, M. (2013). Health beliefs and motivating factors to buy bottled water: A case study of the university students of Bangladesh.

Konieczna, A., Rutkowska, A., & Rachon, D. (2015). Health risk of exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA). Roczniki Panstwowego Zakladu Higieny, 66(1).

Marcussen, H., Holm, P. E., & Hansen, H. C. (2013). Composition, flavor, chemical foodsafety, and consumer preferences of bottled water. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 12(4), 333-352.

Mortula, M. M. (2013, March). Health Risk Assessment of PET Bottles in GCC. In Proceedings of World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology (No. 75, p. 300). World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology (WASET).

Qian, N. (2018). Bottled Water or Tap Water? A Comparative Study of Drinking Water Choices on University Campuses. Water, 10(1), 59.

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Exposure to Chemicals in Plastic from Bottled Water: Annotated Bibliography. (2022, Jun 23). Retrieved from https://proessays.net/essays/exposure-to-chemicals-in-plastic-from-bottled-water-annotated-bibliography

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