Exploratory Research Example on Public Health Issues

Date:  2021-06-23 17:21:01
7 pages  (1684 words)
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Section I: A Review of the Data Analysis

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There are several ways of analyzing data in qualitative researches. The statistical method of data analysis used is informed by various considerations. Since data gathering, as well as analysis processes, is somehow in line with new analytic procedures informing the procedure of extra data collection in addition to new data directing the analytic process, it is vital to understand that qualitative data analysis processes are not completely separable from the actual data. This paper, therefore, seeks to analyze three types of statistics and will focus on Nonparametric Tests; t-Tests; and correlations.

Nonparametric Test Paper

Research problem.

Trauma is amongst the most prevalent causative agents of mortality for individuals aged from one to 45. Obesity is a national catastrophe, which impacts all areas of health care, trauma included. Obesity is a critical health issue owing to its close correlation with major medical diseases in addition to heightened probability of comorbid conditions. The probable number of obese trauma patients characterized by complications and critical injury increases with the proportional increase in the number of obese adults. The study sought to assess whether trauma patients with dissimilar body mass indexes varied in the utility of resources calculated as a complex outcome variable.

Data collection and source. Discuss here (Give a brief overview of how the data Were collected. What is the source of data? i.e. questionnaire, physiological data, existing statistical information etc.).

Trauma registry was utilized for a surveying research of adult in-patients in a Midwestern level 1 trauma center. Participants were categorized into three groups: non-obese, obese, and morbidly obese. Subsequently, the correlation between patient/injury features as well as hospital resource usage was determined with the help of three canonical correlation analyses.




Mechanism of injury,


Discharge destination


Sample size estimation.

A large sample size was used that comprised of 69 percent of the US population and 64 percent of patients treated in the facility. Power analysis was conducted to aid in choosing an appropriate sample size, which was indicative of US trends in morbidly obese, obese, and overweight patients.

Appropriateness of statistic.

In this exploratory research, canonical correlation analysts were used to determining the connection between patient/injury features in addition to usage of resources across BMI groupings. The assumptions were met in that from the study; it emerged that injury factors were responsible for the main difference in hospital resource utilization in the trauma patient. The level of measurement was appropriate since canonical correlation analysis is instrumental when the surveying dimensions symbolizing the mixture of variables are not known.

Data display.

The data were displayed in elaborate tables that were labeled correctly. This was appropriate in that it aided in presenting detailed results as well as sophisticated trends, patterns, and relationships concisely and clearly; minimizing the length of the report in addition to enhancing readers comprehension of the research findings.

Correlation Paper

Research problem.

The article titled, The Use of Community-Based Participatory Research to Assess Perceived Health Status and Health Education Needs of Persons in Rural and Urban Haiti, studies how community-based participatory research can be used in Haiti to determine the health situation. Haiti has a population of 10, 000,000 people, and majority of who are aged 24 and below. A high incidence and prevalence of both artificial and natural calamities have seen Haiti experience both communicable and non-communicable diseases. The health situation in Haiti is not unique because, like many other parts of the world, poverty has led to poor, health literacy and health care that in consequent cause high rate of disease, poorer health outcomes, and injury. This article, therefore, seeks to compare and contrast the perceived self-health status as well as health education needs of urban and rural populations in Haiti with the help of a Community Based Participatory strategy.

The study seeks to answer the following research problem:

The self-perceived health situation of the adult population in Haiti. It also seeks to determine the self-perceived health literacy needs of the adult population in Haiti. Further, it assesses the disparities in self-perceived health situation in urban and rural Haitian adults. Lastly, it seeks to determine whether the Community Based Participatory Research strategy is successful in obtaining health information in rural and urban Haitian population.

Data collection and source.

The study employed the use of surveys to gather demographic data, and it was effective in acquiring the individual importance of numerous health education topics. Native Haitians were put through the training on how to make use of the survey instrument as well as carried out a short interview after acquiring the consent of subjects in urban and rural settings.




Health-related status

Years of education

Sample size estimation.

Discuss sample size estimation. Consider the following:

Identifying the optimal sample size offers an assurance of the adequate power to determine statistical significance. Using a big sample in research is not only cost-intensive but also exposes a big number of participants to the procedure. Likewise, if research is underpowered, it is rendered statistically inconclusive and make the entire protocol a catastrophe. Power is the likelihood of rightfully denouncing the null hypothesis, which the sample approximates (such as mean, odds, proportion, and correlation co-efficient among others) does not statistically show any difference between research groups in the primary population. In the current research, subjects (n = 340) were drawn from residents of either Gressier, Leogane, or Carrefour, Haiti. It only involved both male and female adults who were ready to fill in the survey. There is no evidence of whether power analysis was conducted. However, the sample size was appropriate for the statistical test based on the fact that it produced a power of over 80%.

Appropriateness of statistic. Simple descriptive statistics were carried out on demographics, health education, and health-related status. One-way ANOVAs and Independent T-test were carried out between variables to determine the disparities, which existed in the sample. The statistical method (One-way ANOVAs) used was appropriate in that intended to determine whether disparities exist within the sample. The assumptions of the study were met in that health-related status largely differed by urban versus rural community type. The level of measurement was appropriate for this study in that it determined successfully the level of difference in health-related status. Those in urban areas (SD = 1.10, M= 2.64) perceived their well-being as largely better compared to those in rural settings (SD = 1.14, M = 2.26), p = .004, t (324) = 2.93.

Data display. The data were displayed in elaborate tables that were labeled correctly. This was appropriate in that it aided in presenting detailed results as well as sophisticated trends, patterns, and relationships concisely and clearly; minimizing the length of the report in addition to enhancing readers comprehension of the research findings.

t-Test Paper

Research problem. Discuss here (what is the problem or questions this research concerns?)

The study sought to confirm the impact of the primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) using <60 min door-to-balloon time on ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients prognoses. PPCI is the best-suited intervention for STEMI patients. Moreover, for transfer patients, pPci ought to be carried out not more than 90 minutes after arriving at a health facility. The door-to-balloon time is highly connected to the probability of survival. Moreover, the door-to-balloon time is the acknowledged indicator of care quality. Since recent studies indicate that greatly reduced door-to-balloon time does not necessarily translate into enhanced mortality rate of STEMI patients undergoing PPCI, there is a need to know whether reducing the door-to-balloon timeframe is important.

Data collection and source.

The patient clinical and demographic data was gathered from the ED administrative database. The research was carried out in a three thousand tertiary medical referral hospital situated in Kaohstung, Southern Taiwan. More than 130, 000 patients are admitted to the emergency department each year. Over 150 STEMI patients have attended to annually, and almost all of them acquired PPCI as reperfusion intervention. STEMI patients who acquired PPCI from 1st January 2011 to 31st December 2014 were involved in the research. Moreover, patients aged above 18 who reached the emergency department not more than 12 hours following the onset of the symptoms and satisfied the diagnostic criteria of severe STEMI evaluated via electrocardiogram in addition to coronary artery disease verified by PPCI met the inclusion criteria. The exclusion criteria involved patients with greater than 90 min door-to-balloon time together with those with extended cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the emergency department owing to their potential poor outcomes. Also meeting the exclusion criteria were patients from other hospitals.

Variables. Discuss here. List the dependent and independent variables.



Body mass index

Mean artery pressure





Previous myocardial infarction

History of PCI

Sample size estimation. Discuss sample size estimation.

A single-center research with a comparatively smaller sample size was used in this study. This is a clear indication that power analysis was not conducted. The sample size was not appropriate for the statistical test. The smaller sample size or under powering rendered the study statistically inconclusive and made the entire protocol a catastrophe. This is amongst the main limitations that are present in this study.

Appropriateness of statistic. Describe the statistic used to measure study

For continuous variables, the collected data were summed up both as the mean as well as standard deviation and later analyzed with the help of Students t-test. Further, categorical were summed up as percentages and figures, and the relationships between the outcome groups were determined using the chi-square test. Binary logistic regression models evaluated the impact of less than 60 min door-to-balloon time on known patient outcomes to cater for the probable confounding factors in the multivariate analyses. The effects were then estimated in regards to altered odds ratios and the equivalent 95% confidence interval. The results were only regarded as being statistically important if a p-value < 0.05 was acquired, two-tailed Students -test).

Data display. Discuss how data were displayed (i.e. graphs, tables).

The data were displayed in elaborate tables that were labeled correctly. This was appropriate in that it aided in presenting detailed results as well as sophisticated trends, patterns, and relationships concisely and clearly; minimizing the length of the report in addition to enhancing readers comprehension of the research findings.

Section II: Data Analysis Evaluation

Provide a discussion as to why nurses avoid reading the data analysis section of a research report and why an understanding of statistical is critical to t...

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