The examination of the importance of using technology in physical education class has a more significant impact among learners. The student's responses on the importance of the use of technology are fantastic as most of them feel that the inclusion of approach in the learning is the best moment ever (Ulstad, Halvari, Sorebo & Deci, 2016). Others argue that the introduction of technology in physical education class plays a vital role in motivating them towards the subject as well as bringing fun to them at a different level of learning. However, a little fraction of the learners revealed that the introduction of technology in the physical education class hurts their eyes due to constant glare at the screen.
Therefore, according to Burges, Adams, Azevedo & Haighton (2016), it can be concluded that so long as the technology is sound and students finds the inclusion of technology in their education interesting, the whole system can be appreciated and validated (Burges, Adams, Azevedo & Haighton, 2016). The increased adoption and technological advancement of the digital technologies have triggered significant transformations in the educational settings, societal as well as the organizational setup. Today, it has become hard to identify the growing power and the spreading capabilities of such forces within the digital technology in different stages of life.
Similarly, the increased technological intervention and digital advancement have grabbed the attention of many educationists. Analysts also contend that current teaching practices and learning processes need to be re-examined to ensure effective technology integration among the learners. According to studies, evaluation of technical integration has more significant benefits to the higher education teachers as well as learners (Ulstad, Halvari, Sorebo & Deci, 2016). Some researchers contend that recognition of the effectiveness of advanced technological tools in physical education settings is increasingly spreading to different learning institutions. The focus of the paper is to discuss the use of exergaming technology in physical education classes and its impacts on the learners. The study also captures the Flow Theory, Structure and Freedom Theory and Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, as well as the determination made by teachers who use virtual gaming in physical education classes, create changes learners' motivation in the physical education participation.
Findings and Theoretical Foundations
Flow Theory, Structure and Freedom Theory and Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Exergaming and Flow Theory
Flow theory is an optimal psychological state which students experience when they get engaged in learning activities which are appropriately challenging to their level of skills and often result in concentration focus and immersion and a task. As a result, the students get into high or deep levels of work satisfaction and personal esteem. As one of the eight mental states which can be experienced during a learning process, flow theory includes apathy, arousal, worry, anxiety, and the relation among learners (Lee et al., 2018). In combination with exergaming technology, most learners experience a mixture of challenge and skill levels of chores in non-optimal combinations.
However, learners can experience mild relaxation in learning a given task when their levels of skills are very high as opposed to the task challenge. Conversely, learners can experience severe anxiety when their level of skills is shallow while the task challenge is top. However, neither of these states are supportive of the optimal because flow theory requires learners to get involved in the learning process fully. The introduction of exergaming technology in the learning process makes learning fully engaged in the learning process especially the practical lessons.
Boosting Student's Engagement with Flow Theory in Exergaming Technology
The task should be intrinsically rewarding
Flow theory must have a rewarding job that makes them remain focused throughout the learning process. For example, the introduction of exergaming plays a vital role in shaping the student's engagement pleasant. The new technology fits the learner's interests, passion, desires, and talents. The competitive nature of technology advancements that learners indulge in exergaming makes the learning process complete with a mild internal drive.
The sense of progress and Clear goals
Flow theory has a sense of intentionality in the learning process. Most students are aware of what they are doing and the possible outcome. As a result, the task usually starts with a clear depiction of the goal to be achieved. Interestingly, exergaming ensures the sense of progression among learners (Mortazavi et al. 2015). This way, a sense of agency in learning the technology becomes important as students develop an understanding of command over the tasks and exergaming involvement.
Clear and immediate Feedback
Flow theorists are fast in identifying the flow of experience that learners involve in exergaming because of the constant and clear goals which are accompanied by immediate feedback. Unlike classroom setup where feedback may disrupt learning, flow theory in exergaming makes instant and immediate feedback.
Intense Focus of the Present Moment
Often, the state of flow is associated with the hyper-focus experience. The learners must seem to be intensely aware of their surrounding as well as their new learning tool. Although it is uncommon to remain entirely focused on a particular issue, the introduction of exergaming has improved the focus and concentration due to its practicality.
Findings in Flow Theory
The critical analysis of the gathered information for the flow theory presents a systematic result in a manner the new technology should be included in the education policies to make learning exercise in the physical education more involving in the primary education systems. For example, it shows that the use of technology in learning provides learners with the right scaffolding. The most important idea in flow theory is the existence of a challenge that is used to match the perceived ability levels of learners (Mortazavi et al. 2015). Students usually give up very fast, especially if what they are doing is complicated and out their reach. On the other hand, others get bored making the scaffolding meaningless in the learning process.
Similarly, flow theory taps an intrinsic motivation among learners. Through patient interaction with exergaming, learners feel a sense of competency because of the addictive nature of visual learning. However, this is a challenge to classroom learning if the system is designed purposely for intrinsic motivation. Most students will prefer playing games while in school and lose the drive to learn the new technology.
Findings from the Perspectives of the Students
Flow Theory, Technology, and Exercise
The result was retrieved from the responses that were made by the students. Upon being asked the usefulness in exercising technological advancement in the physical education class. According to Mortazavi et al. (2015), an exercise in digital technology was introduced to make students exploit their capabilities interactively in the new educational system (Mortazavi et al. 2015). According to the responses made by the students, the majority indicated that technology makes students exercise the academic prowess while others suggested that the use of technology in the education setup makes them feel better and stronger.
It is sometimes called a classification theory because of the presence of two different levels of structures that are involved. One of the higher structure whiles the other on, the lower side. Interestingly, the theory is based on the analysis of learning process structures without giving dominance to either (Lee et al., 2018). It is very inclusive of all structures and system before a conclusion is made.
However, in exergaming technology in physical education, the theory unites all the systems in the learning process before engaging learners in the process.
Findings Using Structure Theory and Freedom Theory in Technology
The results from the responses of the students on the use of technology indicate that fitness levels of most students depend on how the theory brought other elements together. According to Lee et al., (2018)Many students reiterated that viewing videos as well as dancing with other classmates makes them get fully involved in the different exercise processes (Lee et al., 2018). Although the responses to this category require different approaches, the apparent meaning can only be connoted from a mild observation made by asking different questions which are related to the use of technology to enhance physical fitness. The rational reveals that video games make learner active throughout the learning process.
Theoretical Foundation and Implications
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a theory of motivational in learning and psychology which comprises a five-tier model in the needs of humans. It is often depicted through hierarchical levels within a specific pyramid. The chronology in the hierarchy from the bottom upwards presents a flow of needs as physiological, safety, belonging and love, self-esteem and at the lowest; self-actualization. All needs which are lower down in the hierarchy require explicit satisfaction before one can attend to other needs higher up.
Similarly, the diffusion of technology in physical education classrooms need such hierarchy between teachers and learners to understand significant factors that could motivate most learners to take part in active physical activities. Notably, successful integration of this theory into the learning system relies on the ability of physical education teachers to understand the relationship that exists between the needs of the ones at the bottom upwards.
Generally, according to Lee et al. (2018), the educationists should stop treating technology as a unique entity from education systems and try to satisfy the deficits that learners may have in interacting with the process (Lee et al., 2018). This is because when a deficit need fails to be or over satisfied it will quickly go away thereby making other activities habitually directed towards achieving the goals of the next set of requirements which learners have yet to fill in their learning process. As a result, they become learner's salient needs while interacting with the physical education activities. However, these growth needs to continuer to be felt for them to remain stronger once the students have accomplished them.
Implications and Connections of the Study to the Field
The Models in Hierarchy of Needs
An in-depth understanding of the complete assimilation practices that exist in the pedagogical technique relates to content and pedagogy. The two are also required to maximize the learning and teaching effectiveness within the physical education context. However, the Hierarchy of needs models plays a vital role in bringing the elements together in the learning platform.
These refer to biological requirements that are needed for human survival. They include food, clothing, sleep, and drinks. According to Mortazavi et al. (2015), failure to satisfy these needs halts the body functions resulting in poor class concentration among learners (Mortazavi et al. 2015). However, Maslow considered other physiological needs more critical in the learning process while other needs acting as secondary needs until they are met.
This refers to protection from elements, law, order, stability, security, and freedom from fear which learner may experience during physical education. Exergamin...
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