The cross-sectional study by Askarian, Hajiabadi, Kashkooli, Yousofi, Fathi, Kouchack, Danaei, Palenik, and Momeni (2014) investigated effective implementation as well as compliance for the infection control standards. The study revealed the negligence in elements of infection control while recommending the need for providing the staff with education as well as training programs with established surveillance systems. The cross-sectional study entailed staff ranging between the age of 21 and 50 years, with approximately 72% of them being female. The data collection in the study involved forms prepared based on the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, which elicited demographic data as well as the information on the staff status on the infection prevention method. From a mean patient age of about 54 years, the reported frequency of hemodialysis training courses as well as the hand hygiene was insufficient. The results of this study, when compared to the findings of other studies, reveal the low number of staff receiving training as well as the low established standards. Besides, a strong relationship exists between implementation and knowledge of the preventative measures as well as safety by nurses. The Centers for Disease Control should, therefore, recommend hemodialysis vaccination. The government should maintain the practical policies while emphasizing staff training and education with the established regulations to enforce compliance for the health standards.
According to Amini (2016), providing intensive training has a positive influence on the control of the "Central Line-Associated with Bloodstream Infection." The study aimed at exploring the intervention for hemodialysis patients based on the rates of "Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection" (CLABSI). The data analysis indicated the median rate of CLABSI to have decreased to 6.5% after the effective implementation of the intervention. Basing on a quasi-experimental study conducted with the focus on procedures to reduce the infections, there is a need to develop effective clinical practice while outlining the critical elements for the control and prevention of the disease. The study involved the common complication resulting in the death of patients undergoing chronic dialysis therapy. Although several attempts have been made to decrease hospital-related infection, there is a need to implement education as well as programs for training health care workers. The efforts are essential for reducing the rates of CLABSI among hemodialysis patients. The results of this study correlate with other studies that provide a coordinated approach.
The study on non-compliance with infection control practice has revealed the risks to patients receiving chronic hemodialysis. In the study, Duong and McLaws (2017) aimed at identifying the types of the non-compliance as well as the frequency basing on effective hemodialysis infection control practices. The study entailed mixed-method approaches ranging from observations of non-compliance. The views of nursing care activities revealed the high risks of transmission of infection. The results of the study showed the low compliance rate of about 27% for the hand hygiene, with 76% of the glove use. The breakdown of the results reveals the need for providing activities for nursing care on the individual patient basis. It entails responding to the supply of gloves that is limited as well as the hand hygiene facilities. Therefore, the care activities should focus on advocating for hand hygiene as well as changing the gloves to reduce the outbreaks and minimize the multiple nurse-patient contacts related to non-compliance. Nursing empowerment is also essential for implementing compliance in terms of hand hygiene as well as the infection control as they facilitate enforcement of guidelines.
Bayoumi, Ahmed, and Hassan (2019) focused on hemodialysis therapy and health care provision. Compliance by the nurses can control and reduce infection transmission. The study aimed to evaluate the practices by nurses while basing on dialysis control measures. With the use of a cross-sectional survey, the study assessed the performance of the nurses basing on the opportunities for improving the infection control, which is an essential checklist for dialysis. Therefore, the overall performance of nurses on infection control demonstrates requires steps to control the infection. The study revealed that 48% contribution of parental medication preparation as well as administration. The observation revealed the nurses ignored hand hygiene. Besides, they have failed to remain committed and wear clean gloves as required. From the findings of the study, there is a need to employ assessment checklists basing on the significance of developing the strict control measures for infection.
Chu, Adams, and Crawford (2013) focused on how the Catheter-related bloodstream infection contributes to an increase in hospitalization and death of the hemodialysis patients. The catheter infections have increased, prompting the need for programs to reduce infection episodes. The study explored the improvement in clinical practice. It entails effective use of practice framework while engaging the clinical practices as well as strategies capable of decreasing dialysis. The clinical methods were explored through effective clinical audit. The rates of dialysis were shown to have reduced by 4.39%. The study revealed a statistically significant relationship between staff practices and infection outcomes. Therefore the dialysis is preventable, and nurses have a role to play in its prevention based on the current control standards. The evaluation focused on the policies as well as the rates of dialysis CRBSI which have a significance in the overall improvement of care.
Amini, M. (2016). Evaluation of the effectiveness of an educational intervention to decrease central line-associated bloodstream infections among hemodialysis patients. American Journal of Infection Control. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2016.07.001
Askarian, M., Hajiabadi, M. J., Kashkooli, Y. A., Yousofi, M., Fathi, H., Kouchack, F., Danaei, M., Palenik, C. J., & Momeni, M. (2014). Improving infection prevention methods in hemodialysis units: A multicenter survey. American Journal of Infection Control. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2013.09.024
Bayoumi, M., Ahmed, A., & Hassan, H. (2019). Nurses' Practices toward Applying Infection Control Measures Using NOTICE Checklists at a Dialysis Unit. Connect the World of Critical Care Nursing, 13(2), 90-101. https://doi.org/10.1891/1748-6254.13.2.90
Chu, G., Adams, K., & Crawford, S. (2013). Improving catheter-related bloodstream infection in haemodialysis patients using a practice development framework. Renal Society of Australasia Journal.
Duong, M. C., & McLaws, M.-L. (2017). Dangerous practices in a hemodialysis unit in Vietnam identifies from mixed methods. BMC Infectious Diseases, 17(1), 181. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-017-2290-3
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