The learning of oral communication by the children requires skills and knowledge to make them understand and master the process as faster and convenient as possible. Children will gain language skills by putting it in constant practice and according to the opportunities available for them to talk frequently. The opportunity for the children to speak freely will be available when they are with their peers and when they listen to the adults. The opportunities given to children to talk and to listen should occur frequently and daily as the children begin to learn how to read and write. When children are involved in the play with other peers, they will get little time to learn new things as they will always get challenges from the playgroups. At the group, they will learn to identify objects, characters and actions in a text with or with no pictures. The ability to predict what will happen in a story will also be learnt at this early stage. The children will be engaging in the turn-, taking exercises, and the rules of polite language to peers and the adult are developed at this stage.
The children should be given enough time to know their environment; this will provide them with enough opportunity to explore and to learn new things. It will also give them time to express further information, vocabularies and ideas to make them communicate with ideas. When the children are helped to easily relate their experiences to the new ideas within their environment will contribute to the improvement in vocabulary and communication skills. During the period of learning vocabulary, the children are being encouraged to use colour, shape and spatial words to describe things and people around them clearly. The teacher should encourage the children always to listen carefully, which will increase their understanding of communications and the directions given. The use of the expanding vocabulary in most occasions to show what they are feeling and to describe their ideas and need accurately will improve the vocabulary. By participating in different activities, the children will participate in actual sensory experiences.
Print and Book Awareness
The printing activity is suitable for a child in the early childhood stage at this stage, their ability to keenly match words help in developing the concepts words learnt by the child. The teacher helps by giving instructions which involve modelling which show the children how the printing activity is done. The instructor will be pointing the painted words on the wall or page then the children will read and memorized the texts. When the reading is done daily, then it will enable the children to gain daily experiences, and they will be able to read and write what they have mastered. The experience will also allow them to understand that the print always conveys useful meaning and the images are used to help them understand the ideas from the photograph. The consistently is very crucial at this stage because the learners will explore the pictures and get time to engage with the edition.
The phonological awareness includes the phonemic awareness it helps to predict the ability of a child to succeed in knowing how to read and write at an early stage of learning. It describes the child ability to understanding the spoken words and to analyze that the words consist of sounds. The children who can demonstrate an ability to hear and manipulate sound at an early age are those who are phonologically aware. The phonological awareness will always succeed in the developmental of the alliteration, sentence blending and the segmenting process. According to the research on the early childhood learning process, it shows that the possibility of a child to learn how to read quickly depends mostly on the phonological awareness that they were exposed to and how the process was made in conjunction with the normal reading instructions. The instructor or the teacher is required to identify the rhyming words and then construct a sentence from them for the children to master and recite.
Letter Knowledge and Early Word Recognition
The knowledge and understanding of the letter are essential at the beginning of learning how to read and write. The role played by letters in the connection to sounds, and the writing process is very critical to for the success of early childhood learning process. So the letter knowledge is the foundation of beginning how to read and write to the learners at the first childhood stage. When the letter knowledge is combined with the phonological awareness, it will critically indicate whether the child understands the alphabetic principle or not and it will also determine how long the child will take to master the policy. The learning process will involve identifying and do the naming of the uppercase and lowercase letters in the random and predetermined order. The instructors will help the children to provide the most familiar sounds for the majority of the letters in the alphabetical order.
During early childhood learning, process children will develop an understanding of the purpose and functions of the written language. The children will also understand at this stage that words can also be written; this will boost their morale to begin to formulate ideas of how written language operates and how it is being used. At the first stages, the children will learn writing through scribing and drawing of letters. When a child practice learning consistently at early stage ill improve the Childs writing ability in future. At this stage, the instructor will help the child to distinguish the prints from the different images, and they will show the skills they have learnt to use the copy to pass the information. The learners will also be given directions on how to use the phonetically spelt words to communicate and to tell a story to other people. The learners will also be taught that the writing proceeds from left to right.
Sample Activities in Each Section
Skills used in oral language
The teacher responds to the children communication and allows them to communicate. The model of asking questions is being taught to the children words like how, why, what and where are used mostly.
Skills used in vocabulary learning
The trainer will be reading poems to the children and also sing the relevant songs which the children recite continuously. The children will also be provided with the opportunity to use the vocabularies which they have learnt.
Skills used in Print and Book Awareness
The pictures and the drawings will be made available to the children. The teacher will provide drawing materials and assist the children in drawing cartoons. Different colour will be used to make the drawings look presentable.
Skills used in Phonological Awareness
The stories will be read to the children, and they will be asked to pair the word s which rhymes from the story which they have listened to. The children will clap hands to the segment from the Scriptures, which sound the same in the sentences. They will be raising and lowering their voices to pass the information's in poems and raps.
Skills used Letter Knowledge and Early Word Recognition
There will be the use of pictures of tiles, and the children names will assist in the word recognition. The sensory materials like chats will also be provided to ease the learning process. The classroom labels will also help in this process.
Skills used in writing
The children will be provided with the opportunity to write different texts individually and doing group writing. The teacher will encourage children to dictate words and write on their own.
The Context for Meaningful Learning Necessary for All Children Including English Language Learners and Children with Special Needs
This is a context for teaching early childhood for the beginners and the preschool. The school is located in the United States (Neuman & Roskos, 2005). The classroom caries six children, and they are fitted with chats and pictures for early learning. Besides the conversations, there is also a board for a demonstration by the teacher. There is an individual education teacher who assists in teaching and handling children with special needs. Daily, the lesson plan is drowned to cover the essential learning like reading, writing and drawing. Every lesson is given one hour a day and an allowance of ten minutes break. The children are being grouped according to their ability to read and write. This will enable teachers to have a clear track of the knowledge of every child to learn and master what is being taught. The school uses textbooks that have illustrations and pictures which will enable the learner to see the images of what they are being taught.
Neuman, S. B., & Roskos, K. (2005). The state of state pre-kindergarten standards. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 20(2), 125-145. http://www.doe.virginia.gov/early-childhood/curriculum/foundation-blocks.pdf.
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