Literature Review on Education Issues

Date:  2021-03-22 23:28:47
7 pages  (1860 words)
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Dewey, J. (2015). John Dewey on education.

The comprehensive analysis of the pragmatic approach and social theory is provided in this book by John Dewey. According to this book, Dewey like Maria Montessori emphasized on the need of making the school a social place where learners would fully socialize and grow in language command. This book is very important to teachers as it highlights different approaches that ought to be devised in order to make learning environment friendly. Dewey finds that the learner would become well equipped with knowledge if they are allowed free environment for socialization as it is the only avenue that makes them grow well in language and enhance their communication skills that would aid them in learning activities (Dewey, 2015). Different researches have been conducted by different educationist to ascertain the effect of socialization to the learning activities. For instance a certain case study that was conducted in the state of Indiana over 150 learners at their tender age indicated that those learners who were given freedom to socialize effectively were also able to participate well in classroom set up as opposed to those who were restricted. . This research is very useful for future studies as it provides necessary information that ought to aid the educationist in preparing an integral curriculum to accommodate socialization aspect of learning.

Bobbitt, J. F. (2010). What the schools teach and might teach. S.l.: Nabu Press.

According to this book authored by Bobbitt, various learning approaches are tackled and how they can be effected in the curriculum in the view of making it to be centrally focused to the learners needs. This book is very instrumental for both teachers and learners as the issues of education are explicitly advanced. The book shows the need for an integrated approach of teaching rather than the afore traditional beliefs on education. The book is aimed at preparing the learners for future role and tasks in the society due to its new integrate approach (Bobbitt, 2010). Bobbitt as a theorist asserts on the importance of replacing the teaching subjects with social needs of a learner in the said curriculum. He observes that the curriculum should cease being subjective and integrate the social needs of a learner so as to fully integrate the learner in the society. This also takes in to consideration the holistic aspect of learners. He advances the theory of curriculum which is still applicable in most of learning centres to date. The book provides us with the five basic steps of curriculum namely; analysis of human experience, job analysis, selecting objectives, general objectives and planning. The research was conducted over two schools in Alabama. One school was to use the teacher-centered approach and the other emphasized on the social aspect. The results indicate that the school that adopted the teacher-centered approach produced half-baked learners because they could not fully be integrated in the society as they lacked different skills that would make them admissible in the society.

Bode, B. H. (2015). Conflicting psychologies of learning. Boston: D.C. Heath and Company.

This book authored by Bode advances the issues of centrality of mind and body in the learning process. Bode attempts to show that the two aforementioned elements work in tandem with each other and therefore obliterating one hinders the entire system and for that case cannot be tenable. The book further attempts to advance the issue of formal discipline and provide inadequacies related to mind theory (Bode, 2015). This theory encompasses other areas such as psychology of behaviourism, learning process and all other aspect that centralizes itself on learners needs and attention. It is incumbent to state that 45 participants from a school in Colorado were used to determine some variability between body and mind. Twenty of the participants were subjected to rigorous activity that was physical. The other group was given the task that required recall and synthesis level of taxonomical structure. Later on the two parties were given the same task to perform. It occurred that both the team performed differently in the test. The conclusion was reached that once the mind or body is fatigue the production is also hindered. This study is very important to guide the curriculum developers on appropriate measures they have to put in place to see to it that learning is not strenuous to the learners and breaks or even vacations are very important for learners during their course of study session.

Dzuback, M. A. (1991). Robert M. Hutchins: Portrait of an educator. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

According to the author of this book, social transformation is very important in the learning activities. This book is instrumental to the practising teachers as most of the pedagogical skills are enumerated and how it is applicable in different environments. Moreover, the book to emphasise on the leadership style and role in education. This models and structures are clearly explicated with the view of making the system effective and operational (Dzuback, 1991). From the studies that were conducted from different schools in Arizona, it was explicitly clear that the type of leadership employed in the institutions affects the learning processes. From the institution with social teachers, the learners were observed to have perform better in contrast to the other institution where they employed the draconian means. This study aids the curriculum developer to develop materials and books that would guide on effective leadership in the institutions of learning.

Kilpatrick, W. (2002). Great lessons in virtue and character: A treasury of classic animal stories. Grand Rapids, Mich: Baker Books.

This book delves or explicate the theory of progressivism education. According to the author of this book, he states the importance of child cantered approach to be adopted in order to make the learners able to progress in a very systematic manner from one level to another. This implies that if that is put into consideration that learners would have smooth transition from one level to another one since they would have prior knowledge of the background information. Another notable factor related to this is that learning should start from the known concept to unknown. In this the book emphasizes the need of involving learners actively putting much consideration on their life experiences so as to aid learners to comprehend a fact or rather even for proper retention of the idea taught in classroom set up (Kilpatrick, 2002). Moreover, the book emphasizes on formal education and provides that the teacher ought to be a guide to leaners rather than being autocratic in learning activities. The teachers role in learning activities is that of acting as a guide and direct them on their activities in the learning process. This also implies that the teacher should not be the pourer of knowledge but rather give learners an opportunity to share their experiences in learning by fully engaging them in discussion and critical reasoning. Different studies indicate that learners tend to perform better and get requisite knowledge effectively if the teacher employs the learner centred approach rather that the teacher centred one that makes the learner passive.

Kohler, R. (2008). Jean Piaget. London: Continuum International Pub. Group.

Jean Piaget is the proponent of cognitive as the word suggests coming from the root word cognition or recall, it major deals with knowledge and comprehension level of learner. This book is most suitable for use by both teachers and parents as it acts as guide to know the reason behind their children giving out different responses and more so the wrong one. Piaget manages to measure the IQs of varied learners to show some variability in reasoning (Kohler, 2008). This book is also important for researchers who would wish to ascertain some differences exhibited in learning processes by learners. The study ascertained that knowledge is a process and develops in stages and therefore there is no need for a teacher or instructor to force or teach a concept that is higher than learners developmental stages of mind. Piaget therefore came up with the assumption that the childs reasoning is totally different from that of a grown up due to the development stages of brain.

Skinner, B. F. (1974). About behaviorism. New York: Knopf; [distributed by Random House.

Operant conditioning theory was advanced by Skinner. According to this book he shows how the conditional theory influences learning processes and educational practices. This book is very instrumental in learning processes as it advances operant conditioning theory that aids the teacher knowing and identifying the change of behaviour among their learners. Moreover, it has provide some pragmatic approaches that are very useful in learning process or environment. According to Skinner the conditions are voluntary and they do trigger a specific stimuli. The book has provided some multiple examples that ought to be applied in classroom in order to aid the teacher in identifying a specific behaviour from a particular learner (Skinner, 1974). As such, this book is very significant for both teachers and educationist as it provides some pedagogical skills that ought to be followed or applied in teaching process or curriculum at large. The teacher may employ this theory in learning activities by critically analysing the behavioural pattern of their learners, they may be grouped in different categories and given a particular assignment to perform so that the teacher would be able to realize the variability of behaviour in particular group of learners.

Tyler, R. W. (1971). Basic principles of curriculum and instruction. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Tyler advances the basic principles of curriculum. His book is an eye opener to the educationist as the purposes of education are explicitly provided according to different levels. This forms the basis of the principles that ought to be adopted in the curricula so as to enhance mutuality and progress in the learning processes, similarly, learning experiences are outlined with the view of identifying probable ways that may be very useful for adopting taking into consideration the learners needs in the course of their studies (Tyler, 1971). Tyler asserts the importance of evaluation in the entire process. This book has fully elaborated the proposals by the aforesaid theorist about learning. It also tackles the issues of formal education in a very explicit manner attempting to provide solutions for inconsistency in the system. This theorist observed some form of entropy in education system and this prompted him to advance this system of curriculum with the intention of making appropriate changes that would integrate the learners needs in learning. He strongly made some recommendation about the need for improving the curriculum. Tylers approach is the one adopted by most of the nation in their curriculum as it is the most reliable form of approach.

References

Bobbitt, J. F. (2010). What the schools teach and might teach. S.l.: Nabu Press.

Bode, B. H. (2015). Conflicting psychologies of learning. Boston: D.C. Heath and Company.

Dewey, J. (2015). John Dewey on education.

Dzuback, M. A. (1991). Robert M. Hutchins: Portrait of an educator. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Kilpatrick, W. (2002). Great lessons in virtue and character: A treasury of classic animal stories. Grand Rapids, Mich: Baker Books.

Kohler, R. (2008). Jean Piaget. London: Continuum International Pub. Group.

Skinner, B. F. (1974). About behaviorism. New York: Knopf; [distributed by Random House.

Tyler, R. W. (1971). Basic principles of curriculum and instruction. Chicago: University of Chica...

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