The traditional educational system in many parts of the world has undergone dynamic change over the period. The dynamic change caused by the colonization, civilization, societal transformation, and technology advancement, has shaken the education system (Beare, 2002). These have affected the perception of school and its operation among the stakeholders, such the students.
The new changes in the present educational sector and its environment have greatly affected the organizational theories. The organizational theories, which have been successful in the recent past, have faced hurdles in the 21st century. Therefore, to reinforce the old theories, rebranded theories such as the structural, systems, cultural, and political theories, have been great interventions in expanding schools (Beare, 2002).
According to the structural theory, the society is complex, but an interconnected system, where each part works together as a functional whole (Heyman, 2008). The systems in the society include the schools, government, and families. In school as well, there are systems that have to work together for the success of the whole institution. For instance, among students, there are those that love studies, games, music, and other co-curriculum activities. Previously the traditional school priority was given to academic studies and other activities were heavy suppressed and denied a chance. However, the modern school has opened opportunities such as games, music, business, and humanity activities, which operate in structured clubs with mentors or patrons (Heyman, 2008). These interventions by the schools have helped in building and enhancing the structural theory, which gives space to every system, to efficiently operate. Therefore, embracement of all talents and capabilities of students in school should be enrolled in all schools for the benefits of all students.
Most schools originally were structured around strategies used in industries and military. Therefore, individual administrators, who implemented and oversaw policies a one day to day basis, characterized the institutions. This kind of administration was referred to as line and staff management.
However, the traditional line and staff management have failed in this era of polarized efforts to improve educational quality. As a result, the systems theory and practice have been one of the interventions in handling todays school accountability issues. The system theory portrays important characteristics that initiate changes in an institution (Hunt, Wiseman & Bowden, 2003). The theory provides a compelling case for change, time to change, help during the change and sensitivity to the possible emergence of new problems during the change process. The theory breaks the traditional rigidity that was maintained by an individual management in the past, hence opening the school to new projects and ideas (Hunt, Wiseman & Bowden, 2003).
The conventional school set-up was majorly motivated by obtaining best grades. Therefore, all the efforts of the teaching staffs, parents, non-teaching staffs and students was aimed at one goal, rise in the mean score. However, the modern schools have been facing challenges in terms of getting good performance, since the school has revolutionized and has become a hub for production of many products apart from better grades. Therefore, to embrace the opportunities available in school, the cultural theory has been helpful in embracing the changes in the educational system (Poole & Van de Ven, 2004). The success of the former teachers, students or workers has formed the basic assumption, norms, and values that are shared by the members of the school. The sharing of the cultural content has lead to homogeneity and strength in the school fraternity, which feels impacted and desires to do more to maintain their heritage (Poole & Van de Ven, 2004). The cultural theory has also modified a unifying factor that has led to better performance in the schools activities.
Schools for a long time have been under the leadership of teachers. The students that have been lucky to serve in the leadership positions in school have in one way or another been allies to the teachers, who have nominated them as student leaders (Brundrett, Burton & Smith, 2003). The dominance of leadership in the hand of teachers has most often led to the rebellion of normal students, who see their fellow student leaders as puppets of the administration. This has, in turn, increased unrests and strikes in the learning institutions, with the destruction of property. However, the political theory expresses the need to decentralize power and give parties the free will to elect their leaders. The act of students electing their leaders reduces the suspicion about their fellow students, who are privileged to be leaders. The students can co-operate well with their choice of leaders hence providing a conducive environment for learning in the school (Brundrett, Burton & Smith, 2003). The harmony as well flows into the cooperation between the teacher and the students, hence breeding peace in the whole school.
Through interventions discussed above, schools have greatly improved. The unity, discipline, academic, and co-curriculum activities have greatly found a good environment for development (Talbot, 2010). The interventions are aimed at metamorphosing the traditional school to be the modern school. The modern school in applying the modern organizational theories shall be able to handle the dynamic shift in the educational system without breeding victims. Therefore, the future of the schools lies in the complete implementation of such organizational theories, in the day-to-day activities of the school (Talbot, 2010).
Beare, H. (2002). Creating the future school. London: Routledge's Falmer.
Brundrett, M., Burton, N., & Smith, R. (2003). Leadership in education. London: Sage.
Heyman, J. (2008). Basic structural theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hunt, G., Wiseman, D., & Bowden, S. (2003). The modern middle school. Springfield, Ill.: C.C. Thomas Publisher.
Poole, M., & Van de Ven, A. (2004). Handbook of organizational change and innovation. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Talbot, C. (2010). Theories of performance. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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