1a. Impact of inadequate food and nutrients in the elderly population.
Almost 60% of the elderly population are at nutritional risk. This is because as they age, there are a number of psychological changes that result in the aging population changing their food preferences and ultimately their nutritional and health status. These are among others changes in the gastrointestinal function that lead to slow absorption of nutrients and constipation. They experience reduced appetite as a result of reduced senses of taste and smell. This may also cause the individuals to over salt their food that generally causes other dietary complications in the long-run. Reduced kidney functionality and the thirst mechanism lead to dehydration. Dry mouth and the loss of teeth interferes with their food intake. The decline in the immunity of the elderly also puts them at a greater risk of contracting infections.
The consequences of the elderlys deprived nutritional health are among others escalated vulnerability to infection, wounds taking longer time to heal and their bodies having reduced capability of processing drugs. Others are impaired bodily and intellectual function, and increased mortality and morbidity. They also have reduced levels of energy and chronic health-related problems such as diabetes type 2, heart disease, high blood pressure, osteoporosis and stroke.
1b. Identify and discuss some of the likely nutrient deficiencies in adolescents who are vegetarian.
Adolescent vegetarians have dietary intakes that are lower than the average prerequisites of riboflavin, vitamin D, vitamin B-12, selenium and calcium. Their intakes of selenium and calcium stayed low even after the addition of dietary supplements. In some situations vegetarians with low intakes of vitamin B-12 had been recorded to have low concentrations of serum.
2a. What general advice would you give her regarding hypertension control?
Mary should eat a healthy diet to give her control over hypertension. She should also exercise regularly and reduce her sodium intake. If Mary takes alcohol she should reduce the amount of alcohol she takes or quit altogether. Smoking also raises blood pressure so if she is a smoker she should quit and cut back on caffeine.
She should try to reduce her stress levels as chronic stress raises ones blood pressure. Mary should check her blood pressure more often and see her doctor for checkups regularly. She should seek support from family and friends to help control her blood pressure levels. They can do this by eating healthy with her or starting an exercise regime with her.
2b. What are the implications of her BMI on hypertension control?
Her BMI of 33kg/m2 poses a challenge in the effective management of hypertension. Her BMI should be reduced significantly to between 18.5-24-9 for her condition to be managed effectively.
2c. What specific nutrition advice would you give her?
Mary Jones should eat a diet rich in rich in fruits, vegetables and whole grains. She should eat low-fat dairy products and skimp on Cholesterol and saturated fats. In her diet she should aim to boost her Potassium intake which lessens the impacts of Sodium on blood pressure. It is preferable that she gets Potassium from food, fruits and vegetables rather than from artificial supplements. Reducing her Sodium intake even by a small margin also reduces blood pressure.
2d. How would you encourage self-management?
Joining a support group will create interactions with other people with hypertension and this will help her manage her condition with their support. Starting an exercise program by joining a physical fitness facility, hiring a personal trainer or subscribing to exercise applications or videos will encourage her to exercise hence reducing her blood pressure. Keeping a food diary and employing eating plans such as the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diets will help her manage her hypertension herself.
3a. What is the significance of Melissa's age and body weight before and during pregnancy?
A typical 13-year-old girl whose height is 1.6m should weigh between 43-48kgs. This means that Melissa can be described as underweight. During pregnancy, the expectant mother is expected to gain between 9-12kgs for one with normal weight. In Melissa's case she should gain a lot of weight to adequately cater for the high energy requirements her body exhibits during pregnancy. An underweight and expectant mother is likely to deliver an underweight child, have delivery complications or deliver prematurely. It is therefore necessary to make dietary changes to try and mitigate these possible implications.
3b. What factors would you take into consideration when advising Melissa on diet during pregnancy giving reasons for each factor?
Melissa weighed 35kgs when 3 months pregnant. She should eat an extra meal a day to cater for her nutritional requirements and also her unborn babys.
During pregnancy Melissa should increase her intake of folic acid and iron. This help in the normal growth of the baby and the development of the babys brain. Iron also ensures blood levels remain normal preventing Anaemia in the expectant mother.
Her diet should also provide her with iodine that is critical in preventing brain damage in the baby.
3c. Discuss two common food myths/food taboos related to food consumption during pregnancy in your country.
There is a taboo that eating ripe pawpaw can lead to a miscarriage. Expectant mothers are discouraged from eating pawpaw altogether to protect their unborn children.
Another food myth is that taking black tea will automatically cause a miscarriage. The expectant mother is denied black tea and water offered to them instead. The logic behind these two taboos is that the stimulants will overstimulate the mother and raise her blood pressure that will ultimately result in a miscarriage.
3d. How would lack of consumption of food taboos affect Mellissa's nutritional status? The lack of consumption of food taboos may cause Mellissa to over indulge and cause her problems in the future. She may eat unhealthy foods or large amounts of foods with unhealthy consequences in the long run. Weight gain during pregnancy should be gradual and she should remain active throughout her pregnancy.
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