This is Dewey's constructivism. This is the primary and newly invented way of conducting several studies. This kind of theory is commonly used in various learning institutions ("Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development Conference in Philadelphia," 2003). It is stated as per Dewey's theory that such an approach can be used to build personal and social knowledge as a consequence of the study. This theory contains an essence that which is the primary meaning and reason of the learning process, since expertise is uncertain as per Dewey, he urges that knowledge is the interpretation of reality and that gives its need of the application. In this study, a case study is essential since it ensures the validity of the result after every research (McLellan, 1996). The study has two purposes, which end to a result that shows how this theory contributes to positive impacts on educational development hence improving the learner's ability because this theory opens the student's curiosity on anything strange. It also helps learners in developing their knowledge to make and design things related to what they need.
The traditional approach is prevalent in learning. But it ignores the subjects and students' necessities the context. In the traditional concept, the mental level of the students is the process of training, unlike the constructivist theory that focuses on morals, knowledge acquisition, and innovative activities. The traditional approach denies student's participation in the crucial and creative part of learning and ignores the learner's mental level of interest. Orthodox activities are some of the events in the traditional approach since instructions are left unilateral during learning.
To summarize this, constructivist is a more feasible approach for learning since its feasibility in engaging learners in creative activities and innovation is pleasing and regarded. Constructivist is the approach of instruction that is mostly based on observation to judge how students learn since it gives learners the mandate to act as the constructors. Learners make their objects based on the practical they underwent and experience.
The main purpose of this study is to find several primary studies that address hands-on learning, looking at primary studies that have been done with constructivists teaching approaches and traditional teaching approaches.
Constructive and Traditional Student’s Knowledge of Engineering Concept Methodologies
One of the basic and essentials of using constructivist learning is that the learners get the knowledge by having a practical and engagements in training. This grants them a chance to come up with the innovations out of their own experience. The primary outcome is that the study reflects some correlations on the features done using the triangulation concept, which is used as the knowledge society trends. The triangulation method reflects the principles of the constructivism of engineering correctly. With the help of constructivists and the early author's conceptions, the laws of constructivism of engineering can be stated and applied.
Closing the Loop/Feedback Control Method
Feedback is commonly used in a control system design to enhance performance and to reject the disturbance in the system. With the help of the supervisors, the students get it more comfortable to acquire the knowledge quickly ("What is closed-loop control system? - Definition from WhatIs.com," n.d.). Using a closed-loop emulator, in figure 1 below, e is the representation of the margin between the provided reference r. Y, which is the actual output, represents the learner's current knowledge, project progress, and learning. That makes e the learning gap in such a scenario. The close loop emulator can make a mathematical model of the learning process.
Figure 1; Close Loop emulator
Mathematical model of the closed-loop learning process.
A is the positive digit that represents the learner's capability, and the progress is represented by letter x. Another mathematics equation is generated when there is a transfer function between y as the output and r as the input.
Dynamical Analysis of the PBL
This method best represents the pedagogical process. Mathematical representation is not applicable in the is the method when conducting a dynamical analysis making it easier for the learners. That makes one of the limitations of this method. This method has several advantages over the other techniques, although mathematical modeling is not a pressing task in handling the engineering problems, much physical system is needed. Based on the learning process, it's advisable if we derive a mathematical model; afterward, we will utilize the dynamical system tool to acquire the analysis of the project's dynamics. According to Kolb, learning is a process of constructively accumulating knowledge. In their definition of PBL, Bereiter and Scardamalia recognize only those projects whose central activity is knowledge constructing as PBL projects. The whole theory of constructivist pedagogy is centered around individuals that are learning through self-construction of expertise. If we consider that project-based learning is a process where the students are constructing accumulated knowledge, practical skills,
theoretical background, progress, etc., this can be mathematically aggregated and represented by integral action. Integration is the mathematical counterpart of accumulating physical phenomena, i.e., tank filling, or capacity charging. Hence, we can write a state-space equation of one open-loop accumulating learning or project implementation process as follows:
Figure 2: 3 cascaded project sub-stage with learning uncertainty.
In the equation, r represents the accumulation speed of the project, whereas x is the internal process that represents the process accumulation. Similarly, y is identical to x in the tax implemented, and a represents student's capability of handling the project.
Designing an Effective PBL Model
In this model, through the engineering perspective, learners would approach problems of controlling and modeling the complex process of PBL (Richardson, 2003). In the situation of technical issues, learners are advised to decentralized control plans and feedback loops necessary for the subsystem. Breaking down complex ones into smaller systems and creating a suitable controller for every small system, giving the students an easy time in the project (Blumenfeld et al., 1991).The order of compatibility has an effect on the learner's progress, but with the presence of control system analysis and feedback can help them in coping with the compatibility.
Traditional Teaching Methods and Secondary Students' Knowledge of Engineering Concepts
Sensing and Intuitive learners
This method is based on Carl Jung's theory of psychology (Jung & Schmid-Guisan, 2015, p.). It was developed by Kolb, and it plays a significant role in determining how learners understand and process the information. The induction method is best preferred at least below the graduate level that why it is also called an inquiry learning. Deduction method is the fundamental traditional college method of teaching. The inductive approach isn't prescriptive since the learner is expected to come up with a reasonable result out of theory, making the deductive method more preferable.
Many engineering courses use reading and lectures to pass information giving an upper hand to intuitive learners ("5 Teaching and Learning Core Engineering Concepts and Skills in Grades K-12 | Engineering in K-12 Education: Understanding the Status and Improving the Prospects," n.d.). When most of the lecturers are intutors, many engineering students are sensors creating a mismatch in most of the engineering courses. According to Godleski, sensing students are likely to get less grade compared to intuitive learners. Since most of the engineering tasks require attentiveness and awareness of the environment, both sensors and intutors are capable of being competent engineers because knowledge and attentiveness are the strong marks to the sensors while instructors have creativity, talent, and theoretical ability of inspired guesswork.
It is advised that most of the engineering teachings should try and reach both sensors and intutors, unlike the prevailing situation of only reaching instructors, thus creating a similar style known as concrete and abstract.
Inductive and Deductive Learners
This involves observations, data, and measurements, while inductive goes the opposite way to deductive. The difference between the two is that deduction counts on consequences while inductive banks on principles. Induction is more of a natural learning style based on its principles; in the selection, when you shout, someone has to show up for a response.
Most of the engineering lessons work with deductive from its fundamentals even though data claim that most of the engineering students are likely to be inductive learners. Most of the engineering teachings are deductive. Since the engineering results are well-organized information along deductive and inductive lines, and this makes a difference in most engineering learners' styles due to the mismatch. The deduction has a problem with the wrong impression. This problem came in a way that the instructor does everything on his/her own to perfection without the learners. When the students see the perfectly arranged, concise exposition, they feel low and assume that they cannot make the same material to perfection ("Compensatory education. Hellmuth, Jerome (ed.) Disadvantaged child. Vol. 2. Headstart and early intervention. New York: Brunner/mazel, 1968, 613 p., $12.50," 1970, p.). That may make the drop the profession and look for the easier one.
Active and Reflective Learners
This is a mental process where acquired information is to be converted into knowledge, making the experiment be categorized into separate groups depending on the student's ability to conceptualize the information. These categories are an active and reflective experiment. Engaged learners are needed to handle the external world with explanations and examinations, while reflective learners observe and converse the analysis (Barbe, 1953, p. 50). Most of the engineers are likely to be active learners. Active learners tend to be good in experiments and active in group work, while reflective learners are good theoreticians and prove to be right by themselves. Both sensors and active learners share one thing in common; they both work on the external world while reflective and in tutors are involved in the inner world. Unfortunately, both of them are still needed in engineering since they can play in a supportive way. If a reflective learner is good mathematicians and theoreticians, they can help in spotting the problems and the possible solution. Active learners with their capabilities to experiment, would evaluate the idea and try a test for the answer.
To keep both learners in one class, the tutors should be alternated with the presentation of materials that favor both learners.
Constructive is the primary and newly invented way of conducting several studies. This kind of theory is commonly used in various learning institutions. It is stated as per Dewey's argument that such an approach can be used to build personal and social knowledge as a consequence of the study. This theory contains an essence that which is the primary meaning and reason of the learning process, since expertise is uncertain as per Dewey, he urges that knowledge is the interpretation of reality and that gives its need of the application. In the traditional concept, the ment...
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