In the United States, all schools are required to develop a comprehensive reading plan for their learners. The plan enables educators to promote excellent academic achievement among learners through creating effective instructional goals. Amanda is a six and half-year-old grade one student who have been transferred to a new school but is experiencing reading challenges. Additionally, so as to remedy the situation, Amandas teacher must create a comprehensive reading plan to teach her. This essay illustrates the sequences of Amandas instructional goals as well as a selection of the best early reading strategies of each of the identified instructional goals.
Sequencing the Steps of Amandas Instructional Goals
The first goal would be to offer a letter or a combination of letters to Amanda after which she would say the corresponding sounds. This will be effective in helping Amanda to know how to pronounce different sounds made by letters. The second goal should be to give Amanda a consonant-vowel-constant (CVC) word prompt. This will aid Amanda to sound different consonants correctly. Additionally, this will enable Amanda to read different constants as whole words and later say the words fast. The third goal should be to show Amanda different sight words.
This will help Amanda in identifying and stating the different types of site words correctly. Additionally, this will also be important as it will enable Amanda to identify different site words in a composition of the text. The fourth goal would be to give Amanda a brief reading passage based on her instructional level. This will aid Amanda in reading a passage and later be in a position to recall its primary ideas. The last instructional goal that should be achieved will ensure that Amanda can recall three to four sequenced happenings after listening to a story.
Selection of Early Reading Strategies for Each of Amandas Goals
In the first instructional goal focused on teaching Amanda, the peer tutoring technique should be employed. In this case, peer tutoring is a methodology through which children work collaboratively in a structured manner with the aim of practicing various teacher designated skills (Falk & Wehby, 2001). Additionally, the peer tutoring format that should be employed for Amandas case must be inclusive of the class-wide peer tutoring method. In this case, Amanda should pair with another student in class and then take turns in acting the roles of a tutor and student.
The repeated reading strategy should be used in Amandas second instructional goal. That is the goal involving offering CVC word prompt to Amanda, to help her sound the vowels and read fast. In this case, repeated reading of a given familiar text is a methodology that will aid in increasing Amandas reading fluency. This is important because a fluent reader develops automatic skills of word recognition that allows him/her to spend more energy on comprehension as well as less energy on the decoding of text (Bender & Larkin, 2003).
Additionally, the Model-Lead-Test can be employed in achieving the third instructional goal. The Model-Lead-Test is a technique of offering instructions that offer students recurrent chances for practicing a new reading skill correctly, under the supervision of a teacher (Burrello, Lashley, & Beatty, 2001). The technique will also be effective in developing Amandas reading skills because it is systematic, explicit and it permits repetition. In this case, the teacher will offer Amanda the chances to practice and state different sight words using repetition. Moreover, the teacher will correct Amanda repetitively if she states a sight word incorrectly.
Additionally, the comprehension strategies will be employed as effective techniques for securing the fourth instructional goal. Comprehension strategies are the methodologies that readers can employ to secure meaning of a given text. In this case, the comprehension strategies will offer Amanda metacognitive tools and ability that she can use by herself to understand texts. Also, by understanding the meaning of the text, Amanda will be in a position to recall the key ideas of the offered passage. Ultimately, the last instructional goal will be attained by using the independent practice technique. The independent practice instructional methodology permits learners to practice a variety of skills they have been taught with, in class.
Additionally, this method attains its instructional goals by combining its implementation with a range of classroom activities. Such activities may include the use of learning centers, self-correcting materials, computer-assisted learning techniques as well as learning games (Archer & Hughes, 2011). Furthermore, educational games are highly encouraged to be part of the learning activity. This is because they are motivational and they provide learners with an opportunity to use their reading skill enjoyably. In this case, the independent practice strategy will enable Amanda to be in a position to practice all the reading skills she will be taught using the other instructional strategies. The technique will also enable Amanda to be able to listen, understand and offer the sequence of events as they occur on in a given passage.
Developing an Activity That Aligns with One Identified Strategy
The peer tutoring strategy is an activity that can be employed in developing Amandas learning at home. In this case, Amandas parents can organize with a few other parents from Amandas class, to meet regularly at home for peer learning. Additionally, under the peer tutoring activity, Amanda and her peers can practice letter or sound identification. In this case, the students can practice recognizing the new letters/sounds by performing a review of the previously learned letter sounds in class. Additionally, through peer tutoring, Amanda and her peers can practice rhyming. In this case, the children can work collaboratively with an objective of finding words that rhyme.
In this case, the children can use sheets or pictures with words that rhyme. Moreover, they can also use educational games that onsets rhymes. Additionally, Amanda can use blending and segmenting strategies as part of their peer tutoring activity. In this case, some children can employ a blending activity that is referred as Say it Slow and Say it Fast where one student may lift a word card while the other students read the word slowly and then fast. Also, sound boxes can be employed by Amanda and her classmates under the peer tutoring activity. In this case, sound boxes could either be connecting cubes or small sound blocks. In such an activity, the children will drag a box for every sound mentioned in the learning activity.
Additionally, so as to maintain a collaborative relationship with the childrens parents, it would be essential for the teacher to incorporate the adults in the learning activity. In this case, Amandas parents and other parents can be present during the peer tutoring activity and even support their children in the learning process. Moreover, it would be important to educate the parents on the importance of having regular peer tutoring sessions for their children. This way, the parents might consent to have regular peer tutoring sessions, either at Amandas house or the houses of Amandas classmates.
In conclusion, a comprehensive early plan is imperative for every learning institution in the United States. Such a plan enables teachers to promote excellent academic achievement among learners through creating effective instructional goals. Additionally, there are several instructional techniques that can be employed in developing the learning skills of learners. Such strategies include peer tutoring, repeated reading, Model-Lead-Test, comprehension strategies and independent practice techniques.
Archer, A. L., & Hughes, C. A. (2011). Explicit Instruction: Effective and Efficient Teaching. New York: Guilford Press.
Bender, W. N., & Larkin, M. J. (2003). Reading Strategies for Elementary Students With Learning Difficulties. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.
Burrello, L. C., Lashley, C., & Beatty, E. E. (2001). Educating All Students Together: How School Leaders Create Unified Systems. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.
Faulk, K. B., & Wehby, J. H. (2001). The effects of peer-assisted learning strategies on the beginning reading skills of young children with emotional or behavioral disorders. Behavioral Disorders, 26(4), 344359.
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