Intestinal Obstruction in the Newborn details the results from a questionnaire study of 165 responses. In the results, Walker et al (2006) establish compelling findings and an informed discussion section that advocates for additional research in the area. Although the assessment of the research shows success, there are significant areas of the paper that needed improvement.
A hypothesis is an assumption about a sample population. In this research, the paper applied a hypothesis that does not specify values for the various parameters of the sample population. It nullifies the difference between the findings by suggesting a statistical significance. The paper embeds its hypothesis in its research objective which suggests that there is a significant difference in the observations of different groups on the color of bile in infants vomit. The research, therefore, presents a strong hypothesis which enables it to draw useful conclusions on the need for prompt and thoughtful investigations on the color of bile in infants to exclude the concept of mechanical obstruction. Also, the hypothesis has ensured that paper focusses on a specific research problem and establish a clear relationship between its variables.
The research focused on a population of that had an interest in infants. It used probability sampling in which significant elements of the target population had an almost equal chance of representation. Most specifically, the research used a systematic sampling technique because it had prior knowledge of the right groups to consult during the research. It thus focused on 165 member of the population 47 of who were general practitioners, 29 nurses on the baby Unit, 48 midwives, and 41 mothers of babies and infants. The number was generally fair considering the difficulties of analysis.
The systematic sampling technique used by the research indicates that the subjects were also chosen systematically. For instance, the hand delivery of questionnaires to the sample population shows that the researcher identified them prior to the investigation. Although systematic sampling is a good way to obtain desired results, it presents issues of bias that may negatively impact the final results. In this case, the research should have employed random sampling techniques to ensure that it chose random mothers and practitioners for the research. However, the criteria for selecting the subject groups was wise and informed since it targeted people who have had or continuously have direct contact with babies.
Data Collection Method
The use of questionnaires is often a tricky data collection method especially when the questions are open-ended. However, the research employs a closed-ended questionnaire with colors so that the subjects of the research could simply identify with one color. The method of delivery was comprehensive and assured confidence and due diligence on the part of the researcher. However, there was no guarantee that the subjects did not confer and that the results presented a true picture of what each though the color of bile on infant vomit would be. Therefore, although questionnaires offered a useful method of investigation, there are vulnerabilities in its application such misunderstanding the question and insufficient responses which may reduce the efficacy of results?
The study design was simple and easy to understand and naturally, it should have produced desired results. The choice of the study design also gave the subjects an opportunity to choose more than one color that they thought represented bile in infant vomit. The decision thus allowed the researcher to expose the level of uncertainty among the subject groups and the need for further understanding of the color of bile in infant vomit. As such, the study design provided more clarity on the subject of investigation since it allowed the paper to divide the responses into distinct groups that further informed its conclusions.
The statistical analysis of questionnaires can take many forms. However, the paper collated its results from different sample subjects which provided the simplest coding system that established which respondents chose yellow and which ones chose green as the color of bile. Using this analysis, the paper was able to understand its data by calculating the proportion of individuals on both sides. The statistical analysis thus provided a sufficient and simple way for the paper to arrive at its conclusions. As a result, the research was able to prove its hypothesis that there were significant differences in the observation of different groups on the color of bile on infant vomit.
First, the discussion authentic and clear since it stemmed from the results of the research. It was also highly informed and using previous research analysis, the discussion section was able to offer clarity such as how bile enters the intestines and how intestinal obstructions can result in bile presence in a baby's vomit. The discussion also helped to affirm the assumptions of the research hypothesis and confirm the need for all stakeholders in infant welfare to understand the true color of bile to avoid misdiagnosis and fatalities. The paper sections its discussion such that there is a logical flow of information from initial findings, their deductions and concluding aspects of research. The discussion section also uses figures and tables to assist in promoting the main message of the research and to inform the conclusion from the result section.
In conclusion, Walker's choice of hypothesis, sampling methods, subjects, and research method produce a compelling paper that argues on the need for additional research on the subject of investigation. However, despite the success of each section, there were also significant loopholes that might have led to paper biases.
Walker, G. M., Neilson, A., Young, D., & Raine, P. A. (2006). Colour of bile vomiting in intestinal obstruction in the newborn: questionnaire study. BMJ, 332(7554), 1363.
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