Educational systems across the world need to work towards the best results. Some of the countries such as Mexico have signed every international statement about inclusion so as to transform deep transformations. Countries such as the US; in their federal law they have recognized special education which ought to be part of basic education. Some of the issues related to teacher education are; one, incompetency of students and learners. The current training programs in many countries do not provide proper opportunities to the student teachers trainees an opportunity to develop competency as the organizers of teachers' training programs or teacher's trainee internship are not aware of the present problems that exist in schools. Second is a poor academic performance for student teachers; most of the candidates usually do not have an academic background or requisite motivation for well-deserved entry into the teaching profession. Third, is lack of facilities; in India, for example, teacher education is given motherly treatment but in other nations, teacher education program is usually run in rented buildings with no laboratories or the relevant facilities to carry out the program. Fourth, is the isolation of teacher's education department; in most countries across the world, teacher education department has been isolated from other departments such as sciences and engineering. Most universities and colleges consider teaching education department as an alien and not a nursery like other professional courses. Other issues which have been associated with teacher education is inadequate empirical research, lack of professional development and lack of occupational perception.
Teachers are very critical during the rise of education standards. To improve the school efficiency and the equity of schooling it depends on the skills of the teacher. Teachers have to be well-resourced and motivated so that they can perform at their best. Effective evaluation and monitoring is central to a continuous improvement for effective teaching in an institution. Through evaluation, one is able to know the weaknesses and strengthens of a teacher. In addition, one is able to know the aspects of teaching that need to be developed further. Also, teacher evaluation improves the effectiveness of learning and teaching. It also raises education standards.
Teacher evaluation involves an accurate appraisal of teacher effectiveness, the areas of development, support and opportunities for professional development, coaching, weaknesses and strengthens of the current teaching standards. This paper aims at analyzing a model of teacher education for initial teacher preparation. Basically, the paper will address four major areas; first, an over of teacher education models, a description of teacher education context where the paper will provide an analysis of the needs of pre-service teachers trainees. Second, the paper will give a critical discussion of alternative models of teacher education. Lastly, the advantages and rationale for the reflective approach adopted for the initial teacher.
Description of the context
Teacher education is divided into major parts. The initial part is theoretical and the last part is practical. The main reason for having both practical and theoretical is to combine awareness- raising training and experimental practices of teacher training. Awareness-raising training aims at developing students'-teachers with an understanding of teaching methods while experimental-training aims at exposing student teachers with the actual teaching environment (Roberts, 1998).
Importance of English
To start with, English is based on a very simple alphabet and it is very simple, quick, and easy to learn. As compared to other languages such as French and German. There is a lot of people who speak English across the world. It is an important language across the globe for all kinds of both personal and professional goals. This means that learning how to write and speak English is very important (Roberts, 1998). It said that one out of five people can be able to speak English. Second English is a language of science, tourism, diplomacy, and computers. For the students knowing how to speak in English, increases once chances of getting a job in multi-national companies. Third, English is a language of the internet (Arroway, 2016). According to computer scientists, eighty percent of websites are written in English. Forth, if a student learns English well enough such that they are able to pass tests such as Test of English as Foreign Language (TOEFL), a student is able to study both English and Literature language in the University. TOEFL is one of the English proficiency exams. Fifth, English can make one's life more entertaining; understanding English means that a student can be able to enjoy movies in modern Hollywood, Netflix and other classic movies from British countries. Lastly, according to research, English increases changes in the brain structure of an individual. It makes ones brain stronger (Rachel Kelley, 2016).
TESOL in general and importance
By learning English in the university, it means that one can go ahead to get Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL). TESOL is certification in English; it means that the certificate holder on TESOL has received a professional qualification in teaching English to those individuals who do not English (non-native English learners) and native English listeners. Additionally, with TESOL certification an English Teacher is able to combine theory and practice thus able to provide essential language skills to both the learners i.e. native and non-native.
Initial teacher preparation in the UK
At times students always think it is simple to be a teacher but it is very essential that one decides which age group they would want to teach before they apply, before applying to be a teacher in the UK one is required to have decided the age level they would wish to teach. They are then required to contact the local college, take tester courses, and then join college of their choice. In the United Kingdom, around 30,000 individuals enter teacher education each and every year.
As an English teacher, one aim is to be student informant i.e. an informant is a native speaker who is able to provide linguistic information to the person who is studying the language. Second, an English teacher ought to aim at putting language in context; the teacher is able to balance between spoken English and written English. Third, an English ought to balance between the role of a teacher and that of an informant. With this aim, a teacher is not only able to explain the obvious but also adds background information about the utterance itself. Example, if an English teacher is teaching the difference between "can and "may", an English teacher does not only give the differences between the two but also give examples. Since most people are bilingual people; a true English teacher is always aware when they are speaking the second language; they are able to express things in their own language.
They two modes of learning that are employed by both colleges and universities for one to be an English teacher these are; full time and part-time. First, the admission requirements for the two modes are the same. The only distinction between the two models is that part-time students usually take a longer period to learn. The best recommendation for student-teacher is a full-time basis. This is because, they are able to have ample time to practice teaching experience (ColumbiancollegeofArts, n.d ).
Constraints imposed by factors relevant to the specific context
As discussed above TESOL is a certification in English practice. This imposes some limitations. First, experts are not always good teachers as we all know especially those teachers who teach languages. Other limitations in teaching language are that at times it is very difficult to engage, communication is one way, and the audience is passive (Wadsworth, 2016, p. 56)A description of Teacher education context
Teacher education is said to one of the country's important tool. It is used in achieving development and progress in the current modern world. Teacher practicum experience is also said to one of the central element in the teaching profession (Roberts, 1998). It provides student-teachers with the chance to examine their knowledge which they have gained during their class time i.e. student-teachers are able to examine their knowledge (IllinoisStateNormalUniversity., 2015).
When learning how to communicate, student teachers use their knowledge of language grammar and features. Some of the features of texts include the layout of the text and length. Other text features that student teachers ought to note are the sequencing of paragraphs, visual language features like tables, illustrations, charts, and photographs
To start with teaching, learning, and classroom are considered social activities which imply relationship not only between students and their tutors but it is between the two parties and classroom environment, materials, curriculum, and equipment (Roberts, 1998). These are considered to be support materials, the course book that students and student teachers use is said to include communicative activities and tasks. According to a study from the University of Hacettepe, one of the needs of students' teachers is support materials and equipment. The University of Hacettepe carried out a study from three classroom environment and he had the following table as shown below
Table 1: Need for Support materials
|Primary school environment||2.68||3.05||2.92||3.03||2.92|
|Primary school environment||2.33||2.19||2.43||2.81||2.44|
From table one above it is evident that in a primary school environment where student-teachers carried out their practicum studies lack the necessary visual (according to the table m=3.05). In additional, student-teachers lacked supplement materials. Also, from the table, it is evident that the students lacked audio-vis materials. In the secondary school environment, it is evident that student-teachers lack supplement materials.
Ariff has continued to highlight from his research the needs of the course-book, this is shown by table 2 shown below
Table 2: Need of course Course-book
Table 3 shows are key to table 2
- B 1 Communicative tasks and activities
- B 2 Unknown language within the text
- B 3 Grammar exercise
- B 4 Vocabulary exercises
- B 5 Pronunciation exercises
- B 6 Translation exercises
- B 7 Physical layout
- B 8 Long and Unauthentic Reading Passages
- B9 Grading content
- B 10 No Explanation for Grammatical Structures
- B 11 Unsuitable for
Students' English Level
From table 2, it shows that used English Language Textbook (ETL). Additionally, it shows that the textbook lack pronunciation (i.e. m=3.08). The book lacked enough pronunciation exercises. This analysis is replicated in a secondary school environment.
Issues resulting from the students
This is another need which was reported by the University, from the table 4 below; it is a clear indication that in a primary school environment, students lacked interest. In addition student-teachers face a challenge of student's background.
Table 4: Need resulting from the pupils and the students
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