The Outbreak of Yellow Fever In Angola

Date:  2021-03-22 22:46:27
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Yellow fever is caused by a virus and spread through the mosquito bites. Angola has been having yellow fever for the last 30 years. Over the period, this is the worst of all the breakouts. The first case was reported on December 15th in Luanda- the capital city. The control of yellow fever is difficulty in Africa due to its nature of spreading and the economic constrains of the country. However the country was working in aim of reducing the spread of the epidemic. According to world health Organization, though the vaccine is the most effective methods to control the disease, it was in short supply. As at march 24th 2016, the government in conjunction with WHO, had been able to vaccinate barely 5.7 people (WHO, 2016)to have claimed around 369 lives and at least 3867 people had been infected. The province that had been critically hit is he Luanda province, with minor reports from other provinces being reported. It symptoms are fever, headache, chills, backache and muscle aches. More than 1 6t of the victims suffer from bleeding, shock, organ failures which may lead to death if not attended to promptly (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2016).

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In bid to control the fatality of the epidemic, WHO established an emergency management system with around 65 epidemiologist and specialists in vector control, community engagement and relevant specialists.

Later on, WHO disbursed of contingent support summing up to US$500,000 to facilitate fast and officiate response to the outbreak in the ANGOLA case, In addition to this aid, the WHO sub set in Africa , provided around US$300000 and US$ 3 million all in the support to bring the dangerous disease to halt (WHO, 2016).

The symptoms of yellow fever develop by the third day. They include the following: red eyes, delirium, arrhythmias, seizures, nausea and vomiting, fever, headache, and rare instances of coma.

Yellow fever virus is a single stranded RNA virus belonging to the genus Flavi virus. Transmission occurs through a mosquito bite from an infected mosquito carrier. The mosquito is of Aedes or Hamagogus species. The main reservoirs of this yellow fever virus are non-human and human primates where the process is an anthroponotic one-human-to-vector-human. The transmission process are as follows:

The sylvatic- this is transmission that is young between the human and non-human and often in the forest canopies. The mode is through the mosquito from the monkey to human. As the scenario suggest, t occurs during recreation or occupational activities.

Intermediate cycle- this I a common cycle in the Africa continent whereby the virus is transmitted from the Aedes species to human beings living in the precincts. The original host of the virus may be a human of a primate.

The urban cycle- this type of transmission occurs in between humans. This is primarily facilitated by the Egypt species.(Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2016)

In Africa, where the virus is mostly found, research records that immunity increases with age, this nature means that children are more susceptible too yellow fever than their elderly counterparts. However in the tropical South America only the unimmunized young people who are exposed to forested areas are the only susceptible. In conclusion tit is noteworthy to note that young and unimmunized people are more vulnerable. In addition, individuals who are exposed to forested areas either by the virtue of profession or residence (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2016)

There are various strategies that were to care of the spreading and infection of the epidemic.

Protecting of the travelers. The travelers should have the first step being visiting a yellow fever vaccination clinic and ask for vaccine. Secondly, the travelers should have the vaccine not less than 10 days before the journey. This vaccine is a lifetime dose and its only in rare cases that that an additional dose may be initiated by the clinician.

Prevention of mosquito bites. The government engaged diversified policy to halt the spread of yellow fever through mosquito bites. This is through encouraging the susceptible individuals to covers their bodies fully by wearing of sleeved shirts and pants.

The medical department also recommended the USE of authorized insect repellant containing DEET. picaridin, oil of lemon eucalyptus (OLE) or IR353. These nets were also to be used by pregnant mothers too.

In additional to these measures, the government encouraged the use of treated gears and garments. .

The use of screened and conditioned rooms was also a strategy that proved valuable in the exercise (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2016).

In addition to these measures, the government encouraged the use of the adjectives measures. These measures include the administration of the non-hepatotoxics to reduce fever and pain too the patients. H2- receptor is also prescribed to reduce gastric breeding.

The use of the yellow fever vaccine has being overwhelmed recommended throughout the world, however, the live attenuated 17D vaccine has been proved to cause wide type of disease selectively to the recipients.. However the medication process was recommended to avoid administration of drugs that perform centrally like barbiturates.

The role of a nurse in the situation is primarily assistance in the control of the epidemic, first, it is the application of the medical skill pin treatment of the patients. The nurse should authorize the performing of the physical examination and the order blood tests.

Most importantly, the nurse, being well versed with the clinical patterns, and community program and other pertinent data, should embark on educating the masses and the vulnerable groups of the on signs, symptoms, screening, treatment and prevention of yellow fever through various channels such organized seminars and socials media. To increase the efficiency of the control measures enacted by the agencies, the nurse must be knowledgeable to be able to bring fruition to such programs as a leader.

With the integration of foreign agencies and partnership, the nurse should ensure that there is collaborative unity. This is core to the progress of the projects as pertains sharing of the data and facilities. In the case that this epidemic does recur, the nurse should employ transformative ideologies that aim to bring this phenomena to an end. This is through participation if transformative leadership and policy making (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2014).


Centre for Disease Control,. (2016). Infectious Diseases Related to Travel. Retrieved from

Centre for Disease Control,. (2016). Yellow Fever in Angola. CDC. Retrieved from

Stanhope, M. & Lancaster, J. (2014). Public health nursing. Maryland Heights, Missouri: Elsevier Mosby.

WHO,. (2016). Angola grapples with worst yellow fever outbreak in 30 years. World Health Organization. Retrieved 4 September 2016, from

WHO,. (2016). Angola grapples with worst yellow fever outbreak in 30 years. World Health Organization. Retrieved 4 September 2016, from

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