Patient-centered care is an approach where health care professionals work in partnership with the patient and their family to determine the best health care approach for the patient. In this case, it involves taking into consideration the preferences of the patient (Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care, 2011). Patient-centered care ensures that the patient is satisfied with the care that they receive from the health professionals. The patients are treated with dignity, reverence, and kindness. Patient-centered care involves the patient in decision making in regards to their health.
Patient care has evolved over the years. Traditional patient care involved an approach where the patient had to do all that the doctor said. Better Health (2015), however, highlights patient-centered care as an approach where the patient is involved in decision making regarding one's health. The patient can make a comment to a nurse or any other health practitioner, ask questions about their condition and can also complain. The Australian government and other institutions have encouraged health institutions to use the patient-centered approach (Delaney, 2018). The approach creates a team involving the health care workers, family, friends, and patients to make a treatment plan that best suits the patient (Potter et.al, 2016).
Delaney (2018), highlights that patient-centered care has some benefits. The partnership between health care providers and patients increases the patient's adherence to treatment, and thus the patient's health outcomes are better. Delaney (2018), also highlights that patients have increased satisfaction with the health services that they receive. This approach is also effective in empowering patients to make lifestyle changes that are meant to improve their health and wellbeing. The approach has also enhanced the experience of the patient's, decreases hospital stays and reduce readmission rates. The approach is therefore ideal for both the patients and the healthcare organizations. Patient-centered care is paramount in improving services to patients.
Patient-centered care is the main component for safe and higher quality health care system according to The Australian Quality Framework for Health Care, (Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care, n.d.). The approach encourages communication between health practitioners and patients. This is key to increasing the safety of the patients. The method reduces suspicion and secrecy in patient care. Decision-making processes are enhanced, the patients are empowered, and reduces the use of subsidiary health services (Delaney, 2018). Australian hospitals have implemented the patient-centered care. The patients who are involved with the patient-centered approach are able to discern, detect and communicate potential health issues on time.
Nurses have the capacity to implement patient-centered care. They are in direct communication with the patients more than any other health practitioner. They can, therefore, collaborate with the patients to promote and advocate for the choices of the parents.
Beneficence Legal and Ethical Concept
Beneficence is taking actions that are meant to benefit others. These actions are meant to either remove harm or improve the situation of others. All health professionals have the imperative of doing right. The registered nurse is expected to always favor the well-being of the patient and their interests. The registered nurse is thus expected to remove and prevent harm from the patient. They are also obligated to weigh and balance between the possible risk and benefits of an action. Beneficence also involves protecting and defending the rights of a patient. Beneficence in the case of Joan would be ensuring that she receives all the care that she needs at the nursing home and in her home and encouraging her to meet the other people in the home to avoid being lonely. A health practitioner is required to do which requires one to have knowledge of preferences, values, cultures, and beliefs of the patient (Pozgar, 2019). A health practitioner can for example show compassion by informing the patient that there is no treatment but they have some ideas on how to treat the symptoms.
Delivering Person-Centered Care for Joan
Joan Williams is an 88-year-old woman who has lived alone in a flat and now needs nursing care because of her extreme scoliosis. She has lived in the flat with the support of her family members but now needs full-time care as her scoliosis affects her mobility and puts her at risk of falling. Joan has been in the nursing home for the past 8 days and prefers to stay in her room and watch the television until midnight and sleep until midday.
Joan's preferences include watching the television till midnight. This can, therefore, involve being flexible on the bedtime and waking time to accommodate her preferences. Joan can be involved in making a decision on the treatment that she most prefers and not merely be told by the health practitioners what to do. Joan does not also like going to a nursing home as she does not want to make new friends who she will lose with time. Taking the above into consideration, effort should be made to provide care from her home instead of relocating her to a nursing home. A partnership between health practitioners, family, and the patients can come together and develop a plan on how to provide the care from home for Joan. This is ensuring that there is someone to take care of her from home, for example, the nurse, or family and friends. The plan should also involve visits from other health practitioners such as physiotherapists when needed.
Evidence-Based Approach on duty of Care for a Registered Nurse
A registered nurse is a nurse that has completed a bachelor's degree. An enrolled nurse, on the other hand, it has completed a diploma of enrolled nursing (The University of New England, n.d.). The enrolled nurse works under the supervision of the registered nurse (Endacott, et.al, 2018). A registered nurse is expected to make a patient assessment and manage the patient, administer medication and carry out the management duties of the team. In Joan's case, a registered nurse can be involved in assessing the health of the patient and developing a management plan. The registered nurse can advise on the management of Joan's scoliosis and are also involved in administering her medication to manage the disease. The registered nurse can also assign the other enrolled nurse on what to do to provide the best care to Joan.
Registered nurses also plan nursing care with the patients', the health team and other significant groups. They work in partnership with them to determine the best plan for the patients. The registered nurse also has to provide a comprehensive, safe, effective and evidence-based nursing care that best suit the patient (Berman, et.al, 2018). The registered nurse is also involved in establishing and maintaining appropriate therapeutic relationships. They also collaborate with the other members of the health team to provide a comprehensive nurse that fits a group or an individual patient. The registered nurse is also expected to participate in their development as well as the development of other members of the team.
Berman, et.al, (2018) identifies that an enrolled nurse, on the other hand, is expected to contribute towards the development of a care plan in conjunction with the registered nurse, patients, and other groups. The enrolled nurse is also expected to provide care to the patients, promote their safety and security and maintain high integrity when dealing with the patients and their families. They are expected to provide support and care to the patients within the scope of enrolled nursing practice. They also collaborate with other health care providers to achieve the desired healthcare outcomes (Berman, et.al, 2018).
The registered nurse and enrolled nurse work together as a team. The enrolled nurse does not carry out some roles without the presence of the registered nurse such as the provision of some medication. The registered nurse, however, obtains a higher level of education and is required to manage the treatment and medication of the patients. The registered nurse acts as the leader of the team and provides guidance to the enrolled nurse on the path to take when treating the patient. The enrolled nurse is prohibited from providing addictive medication to patients and thus this role is left to the registered nurse. The registered nurse and enrolled nurse, however, are vital in providing patient-centered care as they are involved in the planning and implementation of every treatment plan for a patient or a group (Berman, et.al, 2018).
Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care. (n.d.). Patient and consumers centered care. Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care. Retrieved from https://www.safetyandquality.gov.au/our-work/patient-and-consumer-centred-care/
Better Health, (2015). Patient-centered care explained. Retrieved from https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/servicesandsupport/patient-centred-care-explained
Berman, A., Snyder, S. J., Levett-Jones, T., Dwyer, T., Hales, M., Harvey, N., & Stanley, D. (2018). Kozier and Erb's Fundamentals of Nursing. 4th Australian edition.
Delaney, L. J. (2018). Patient-centered care as an approach to improving health care in Australia. Collegian, 25(1), 119-123.
Endacott, R., O'connor, M., Williams, A., Wood, P., McKenna, L., Griffiths, D., & Cross, W. (2018). Roles and functions of enrolled nurses in Australia: Perspectives of enrolled nurses and registered nurses. Journal of clinical nursing, 27(5-6), e913-e920.
Monash University, (2014). Patient-centered care in clinical education. Retrieved from https://www.monash.edu/__data/assets/pdf_file/0010/998749/redissue27.pdf
Pope, B., Hough, M. C., & Chase, S. (2016). Ethics in community nursing. Online Journal of Health Ethics, 12(2), 3.
Potter, P. A., Perry, A. G., Stockert, P., & Hall, A. (2016). Fundamentals of Nursing-E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences.
Pozgar, G. D. (2019). Legal and ethical issues for health professionals. Jones & Bartlett Learning.
The University of New England, (n.d.). Difference between Enrolled and Registered Nurses. Retrieved from http://study.une.edu.au/app/answers/detail/a_id/1546/~/difference-between-enrolled-and-registered-nurses
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