Sociology of Education: Examining Interactions & Structures - Essay Sample

Paper Type:  Essay
Pages:  6
Wordcount:  1431 Words
Date:  2023-03-16


Sociology of educationgenerally alludes to how people's experiences model their mannerof interactions with schooling.Sociology of education particularly analyses different ways in which people's encountersinfluences their educational attainments and outcomes. Education sociologist'sfocal point includes interactions between individuals, different structures providing recurring establishment and finally some of the processes that bring forth different structures. Structures like school functionality through learning, teaching and communicating. Education sociologists presentsignificant insights into the processes, interactions and the whole structuresof the education system.Additionally, they analyze diverse parts of education systems fromclassroom dynamics, interactivity,and peer groups to institutional structures, and both national and international education systems.

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Education sociologist, therefore,begins with theories providing frameworks used to exploreknowledge about different education systems.These ideologies strive to elaborate and envisage patterns and different practices existing betweenan individualand educational systems.Several theories have been put in place explaining how education as a social institution is influenced by and how they, in turn, affect other social institutions and social structures. Besides, these theories also elaborate on how different social units configure, practices, outcomes and schooling policies.Sociologists have developed different theoriesand concepts encapsulating the sociology of education and how they shape individuals within a society.

The Concept of Status Groups or Status Culture

The concept of the status group basically refers to the communities which are based on the ideas relating to their lifestyle and the honor that the particular status group are given by others. The status group basically exists in the relation of the believes relating to privilege, prestige and honor and all this can have both positive and negative effects. The individuals that lies within the status group can only engage with people that falls within their like status and in most cases, marriages that might fall outside these groups are highly discouraged.

The concept of status culture was coinedunder the functionalist theory developed by Emile Durkheim. Emile Durkheim was so much engrossed on how the society comparatively remainswell balanced. Regarding this theory,society is made up of different parts that cannot functions alone. However, they have got equal opportunities to work for the stability of the whole since each component takes part in requisites roles.In functionalist theory, social institutions make up different parts of society,and each is designed tofulfil different needs.

For example, the government being meritocracypresents education opportunities for all children of different families, which in turn pays taxes for the effective operation of the government. Families and childrenrely on education to have future job opportunities enabling them to help their families.Both children and parents, therefore, becometaxpaying and law-abiding citizens supporting their government.Families rely on the school to help children grow up to have good jobs so they can raise and support them. In the process, children become law-abiding, taxpaying citizens who support the state. Therefore, education here is the main mechanism of occupational placement and what determines an individual's status culture andsocial status. The functionalist theory then views education as the only way of attaining social status groups, mostly based on involvement in a common culture.

Therefore those who cannot reach and comfortablyparticipate in the same level are automatically excluded from such social status. Also, status group attributes such asmanners, the taste of clothing, opinions, Style of languageand values are some of the distinctive personality classes produced by schools. As a result, there are a lot of dissimilarities among ethnicity and class as well as in the different professional occupations of these status groups. Consequently, an individual has to work hard to get to their dream status within society.

Engaged Pedagogy

Engaged Pedagogy is a realistic theory articulated by educator and social critic Bell Hooks. It mainly focuses on comprehensive learning among learners. It is extremely apprehensive about education as freedom, a freeing force and not a standard of memorization.Additionally,the ideology dares standard pedagogical applications in its essentials on spontaneous and delight.It majorly emphasizes hope, freedom, and wisdom. Where wisdom utilizes the characteristics of critical reasoning, which is very significant incharacterizing individuals as liberatedlearners.Hopes grants a sense of the likelihood of fostering society by coming up with creative solutions when faced with challenges.

Engaged pedagogy theory is significantas it calls for teachers and studentsto interrelate as human beings and further identify that there are no perfect intellectuals. Theory, therefore, counteracts immense disinterest, weariness, and lack of interestcharacterized by manners in which learners and professors perceivelearning and teaching experience.Engaged Pedagogy theories suggest that education ought to be a practice of salvationthat cannot be taken away once internalized by learners.A perfect example can be a moral studies class, where professors captivatestudent's attention by educating them about their history.

Embodied State

Embodied state theory was a concept developed by Pierre Bourdieu. It majors on gaining cultural capital. Sensibly obtained and acquiescently inheritedknowledge by socializationto traditions and culture.Culturalcapital is gained over time since it is influenced by an individual's way of thinking andcharacters. Embodied cultural capital differentiates diverse social classes anddetermines student's performance in school. Since it permits the use of time devoid from economic prerequisites, an individual will, therefore, have humble opportunities of gaining their cultural capital. For instance, if aperson is working hard to better the lives of his or her family, he has no time to accumulate cultural capital but rather gains external worth which is theninternalized and becomes acknowledgeable by all.Consequently, the competency an individual has in any line of the profession will ultimatelybe viewed as legitimate.

Concerning status attainment, an individual working so hard, and excelling in any given profession becomes recognized in the societyand considered to be the among the dignifiedclasswithin thecommunity. However, thisideology lacks theoretical clarity as it only focuses oncertain cultural aspects as a measure of cultural capital. The author's view on the dissemination of cultural capital as theonly pivotalproceduredetermining social reproduction is also inaccurate. Additionally, Bourdieu's ideology did not observe gender equality, especially in the labourmarket.

Concerted Cultivation or Natural Growth

Concerted Cultivation ideology was developed by Annette Lareau. It was coinedto illustrate the logic of the typical parenting patterns of parents from different social classes which later ultimately structures a child'sdaily life and activities, and their future. From this concept, we can see that the middle class is actively involved inenriching opportunities and encouraging different activities for their children.Additionally, middle-class parents consciously motivate children's development and oversee their triumph, as well as being actively involved in lives.By monitoring their children's academicsperformances, they get opportunities to help their children enhance their overall school performance, which will help them in the future, particularlyin professional environments.

The concept of natural growth, on the other hand, is a parenting philosophy focusing on the sustenance of a child's natural growth.Inadequate economic resources restrict both poor and working-classparents from fosteringtheir children's academic accomplishments. Therefore, these children are more accountable for themselves, unlike the middle-class children.About status attainment, middle-class children or persons raised by middle-class parents are likely to be categorized under the top social class and recognized by the society due to theirsuperb performance in schools and their professional settings. Therefore, for one to attain this kind of social status they must equally work hard despite their current situation.

Transformative Learning

Transformative learning is a concept coined under education for liberation theorydeveloped by Brazilian educator, philosopher, and sociologist, Paulo Freire. He argues that education should be used as a tool to enhance student's creativity, and the ability to analyze and think critically.Transformative learning regards and stresses deep learning as a wholeprocess of contextual comprehension, critical mirroring on assumptions, and validatingmeaning by evaluatingvalid reasons. However, our education system has mostly been used as a means of dehumanization by integrating ruling class ideologies. Additionally, it has been introduced as a deficit model upon us,encouraging most people to copy othersinstead of being themselves. A situation that Paulo Freireconsidered as another form of oppression. Furthermore, the education system has been designed in a way to thwart resistance as it conditions us toblame ourselves for our life conditions.

Concerning status attainment, Paulo Freire argued that most education systems integrateruling class ideologies resulting in oppression. As a result, the oppressed will certainly imitate the influential class.Knowledge is one of the precious gifts givento the unknowledgeable, its mainpurpose should, therefore, be coalescing learners into an accepted description of self-worth. For instance, when one is obtaining social benefits from the governmentwith acceptedplaces where the card can be used, such individuals cannot make purchases in other places. People and friends around such individuals may, therefore, conclude that their counterparts do not deserve to enjoy certainproducts because they depend on the government to survive.

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