The development of stages in group entails the formation stage, storm stage, norm stages, adjournment stage, and performance stage. They were developed by Bruce Tuckman. The "forming" stage happens in the occurrence of the team's first meeting. It entails an introductory session where members share information about their experiences, backgrounds and interests and solidify impressions of each other (Borkowski, 2016). They also get clear information regarding the project they are supposed to work on, engage in a discussion about the goals of the project and identify the roles for each of the team members. The team leader presents the goals at the stage and offers a clear direction in regards to the next course of action.
The 'storming' stage marks the start of cooperation between team members. The stage should involve all members. It entails competition for status and acceptance of ideologies. Perspectives in regards to the course of action differ, hence, the stages heightens conflict. Through the leader's guidance, members learn to derive solutions to problems together, function independently or cooperate with others, and accept their delegated roles and responsibilities (Borkowski, 2016). The leader ensures that members at the end of the session can listen to each other and have respect for ideological difference. They teach other members on assertiveness and enhancement of listening skills. The session ends with acceptance of each other and with a solidified need to cooperate.
The 'norming' stage entails the development of rules, values and work habits that guarantee project completion. The stage is characterized by mutual trust, open communication, portrayal of good behaviors, positive teamwork and motivation. Relationships between team members solidify and members benefit from the exceptional characteristics. The performance stage is characterized by loyalty, decision-making, motivation and participation. Team members direct themselves in formulating strategies that will ascertain attainability of set goals. Members share knowledge, engage in cross-training and grow in interdependence. Membership develops through personal growth and information sharing (Borkowski, 2016). The leader monitors progress and helps the team through the facilitation of communication processes. The 'adjourning' stage is a final step for project participants characterized by celebration of group achievements. Some people mourn due to the termination of team relationships. Team leaders encourage a tradition of gratitude and recognize each member' contribution.
Methods of Gathering Information In Group
Information management entails gathering information, dissemination of appropriate information and incorporating them in managing processes and activities. Techniques of gathering information facilitate the creation and organization of data from differences source. Information gathering techniques include brainstorming, Delphi technique, root cause analysis and interviewing. Brainstorming entails the derivation of a list of projects. Facilitator guide participants through the process of generating ideas in mass interview sessions and open discussion sessions. The process through either schedules meetings with participants or individual brainstorming. Delphi technique entails the provision of questionnaires to solicit different ideologies from participants. The facilitator summarizes responses from members prior to recirculation. Members repeat the process to gather a precise set of urgent ideas that need to be worked out. Root cause analysis entails the identification of problems and their causes as the project progresses, hence facilitating the development of preventive action (Flynn et al., 2017). The interviewing process is where facilitators engage experts, stakeholders, and participants in an interview process for purposes of risk identification.
Differences in Traditional and Self-Management Team Work
The differences between self-managing and traditional type of team in working relationship, can be realized through authority, experts, teachers, problem solvers, and coordinators. Teams operating under the traditional structure take on authoritative roles. They operate as per the expectations of the management. Members execute their diverse roles with an aim of meeting organizational objectives. Teams under self management technique take on the roles of counselors and coaches (Ciasullo et al., 2017). They guide each other through the process with an aim of showing exemplary qualities. Teams are also guided in the best way so as to deliver the expected results. Notably, self managing teams are more customers driven as they operate to deliver the best results. Experts in the traditional structure teams are normally guided to become experts in their areas. However, experts become champions and cheerleaders in self managed work teams. Furthermore, members in traditional teams act as teachers while members in self management work teams act as resource allocators. While solving problems, members in traditional team structures act as teachers but act as boundary managers in self managed teams. Both work teams are appropriate for organizations. However, their appropriateness for organizations depends on the operational structure, size of the organization and the managerial structure in the organization. Proper management under any structure can guarantee the achievement of results.
Approaches Managers Use to Build Team Performance
Some of the ways through which through which managers can build performance is by being proactive with feedback, acknowledging and rewarding, celebrating success, clearly defining role and responsibilities and getting to know team members. Being proactive in giving feedback enables members to stay on track. As an art of communication, it should be constant, authentic and impactful. Acknowledgement and reward are forms of appreciation for working well. It brings greater satisfaction and ignites extra effort. Celebrating success ignites positive energy in the team with the anticipation of making more achievements in the future (Ciasullo et al., 2017). Defining roles among team members enhances interconnection and encourages all participants to be team players. It ensures that individuals are given appropriate duties to facilitate efficiency in operation. Lastly, knowing team members facilitates the experience of significance. Consequently, leaders will be in a position to match people with their areas of expertise to hasten the problem solving process.
Yes. There is a time we met in the school lunchroom and argued over selecting a leader and starting right away by listing topics for discussion. Even though I saw the need for a leader, I conformed so as to be on the same page as other members. One of the members who was behind my ideology refused to conform. We emphasize on emotional stability during instances of deviant behavior. We then seek understanding from the member in regards to the impact of such an action on the performance of the group but within the boundaries of free will.
We settled on a poor decision because of the principle of conforming to the side of the majority. One member, who conformed, had an alternative possibility. We moved too quickly through development stages because members had a reduced level of morale to perform. It affected cooperation and caused poor communication.
Borkowski, N. (2016). Organizational behavior, theory, and design in health care (3rd Ed.). Boston: Jones & Batlett.
Ciasullo, M., Cosimato, S., Gaeta, M., & Palumbo, R. (2017) "Comparing two approaches to team building: a performance measurement evaluation", Team Performance Management: An International Journal, Vol. 23 Issue: 7/8, pp.333-351, https://doi.org/10.1108/TPM-01-2017-0002
Flynn, R., Albrecht, L., & Scott, S. (2017).Two Approaches to Focus Group Data Collection for Qualitative Health Research Maximizing Resources and Data Quality. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 17(1). https://doi.org/10.1177/1609406917750781
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