Research Project Proposal on Non-hormonal Contraceptive Methods

Paper Type:  Research proposal
Pages:  7
Wordcount:  1760 Words
Date:  2021-06-17
Categories: 

Many women would find the whole issue of taking Fertility Drugs to be a very scary one. Many women are quite aware of the side effects of such drugs including cancerous infections or even multiple births. However, there are many natural forms of infertility treatments that serve as powerful alternative medication regime.

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Background

Although there are numerous options regarding multiple contraception, approximately forty-nine percent of the total number of pregnancies within the U.S is unintended. The CDC, in 2009; reported that approximately 784,507 legal abortions were carried out in the country. The number happens to be translating to about 15.1 abortions per 1000 women. However, there is a sixty-two percent of the total number of women who are reproductive that use contraception. All the available pieces of information conform to the fact that the rate of unintended pregnancy and those of abortion have incessantly soared. The same study, performed in 2012 by the same body showed that contraceptive pills were the favorite method of contraception with about 28% of the population of the U.S resorting to it. Hormonal contraceptives, on the contrary, have side effects that may be undesirable. These types of contraceptives are also associated with events that are adverse and also serious complications to women who are obese, such complications would include deep venous thrombosis. Studies have also shown that the rate of oral contraceptive pill failure among the women in America ranges from nine to thirty percent. The main reason associated with such failure is daily compliance requirements. Also, forty percent of the total number of American women happened not to be satisfied with the available contraceptive methods. Them that did not like such methods happen not to be satisfied with the methods and were inconsistent in the use of the method putting them at risk of having a pregnancy that is unintended. Other contraceptives which are reversible and long-acting and dont require compliance, happen to be having a failure rate that is typically lower. Their percentages with regards to typical use and perfect use failure happen to be very close. The available methods are also either device like the IUD or hormonal. Another type of method which is intrauterine devices use has been widely accepted in the country. From the statistics, the devices acceptance was zero point eight percent in 1995 to five to six percent 2010. However, the IUDs might not be considered by most women who might desire using contraception. All the provided statistics suggest that highly effective contraceptives which are also non-hormonal should be developed. These contraceptives should also have minimal side effects compared to the methods in the market today.

Hypothesis

In this research project will tackle the aspect of non-hormonal contraceptive methods that are associated with the regulation of ovarian functions. With the non-hormonal birth control processes, protection against possible pregnancy is managed without any effects on the hormones of the women. The methods of birth control in this aspect will consider:

Backing up the hormonal method

Having experienced medical contraindications and side effects to hormones

Having had issues associated with infrequent intercourse and no feeling therefore for contraception forms.

Not wishing to alter ones natural body rhythms for any reason whatsoever.

Independent Aims

Improved Communication

Currently, there are issues concerning deficiencies in communication and interactions of which are however considered as a weakness towards ensuring that contraception takes root in the country. Improvement in the area is critical to ensuring that success is realized in the NICHD Contraceptive use mission. The aims that this research activity is geared towards include:

To ensure that the CDDB, the NICHD, and the NIH routinely get engaged in the establishment and the maintenance of contraceptive leadership programs.

To ensure that mobilization of and strategy discussion with the alignment of NICHD plans are put in place.

To teach women on the importance of contraceptives.

Restructuring of the Review Process

This research activity recognizes that there is the difficulty in the reviewing process of projects about contraceptive R&D. Such is because the process involves many approaches which are also different. The project will also set its disciplines differently to the ones used in the scientific studying processes towards research and clinical questions. Also, approaches towards behavioral researches that are applied in this case are unfamiliar to activities of focused development and other clinical issues. The mechanism that will, however, be developed in this casedeveloped, would lead to great input or oversight with regards to contraceptive development.

Foster Increased Productive Industrial Interactions

As in the other identified aims, it would be very advantageous if the research activity was involved in industrial research. Since the previous methods of research were not involved in the aspects of marketing and manufacturing capabilities even though the two are vital to ensure full development, adoption, and dissemination of contraception. To ensure that the opportunity and possibility of production with regards to industrial engagement needs to be done at contraception level before distribution to the market.

Approach

Research Design

From the objectives of this study, the design will aim at producing drugs with regards to natural contraceptives and tested on a target population. The descriptive design herein is considered therefore to be appropriate and accepted.

Sampling Sample Size and Technique:-

The sampling technique is, therefore, a convenient purposive technique while the size of the sample is 40.

Setting:-

United Sates of America.

Techniques and Tools

The technique used herein is an interview.

The tools on the other hand are:

Demographic Data

Perception-related questions.

Practice related questions.

Findings of the Study.

Demographic data:

In the study carried out, approximately seventy percent of the respondents were female while the males were at thirty percent. Most of the respondents also happened to be Hindus while only a twenty percent being from the Christian religion. Also, most of the respondents were under the age of 33 to 38years. The percentage, in this case, is thirty-seven point five. Most of the respondents also happen to have cleared their secondary education. The percentage, in this case, is twenty-seven. Again, most of them that were questioned were married for at least fourteen years.

Findings on Perception.

Generally, approximately sixty-four percent of the respondents had a positive perception regarding contraception. However, about seventy-one point five percent of the respondents accepted the fact that religion is not one of the contraception barriers. On the contrary, about 58.5% of the respondents said that the issue of contraception is expensive. The survey also shows that eighty-five point five percent of the respondents accepted the use of contraception. About eighty-nine percent of the respondents accept that contraceptives are quite important in pregnancy prevention.

Findings of practice:

With regards to the study, people regard the use of condoms as 100% effective. However, about 69.23% go for the use of oral pills while 42.85% go for the IUDs.

The correlation coefficient existing between practice and perception is correlated positively the representations are

r= 0.2

P<0.0001. Which is about 0.05% statistically significant.

Preliminary Literature

Hormone comes from the word the Greeks and means "urging on." Hormones that are considered as natural are in most cases chemical molecule that is elaborated in the glands and later enters into the blood stream. They then exert a given amount of effect on the cell activities within the body. Mammals happen to be the same in one way or another even though not genetically identical. The main difference, however, is in the manner in which the hormones work. Unlike vitamins that are exo- geneous and are mainly provided through food consumption, hormones get considered as endogenous catalysts. The hormones that are steroids are regarded as essential to life. The hormones that are steroids can be divided into the ones ensuring that species are alive then there are those that ensure that individual is kept alive.

The first synthetic version of steroids is Norethindrone. The drug is made of progestin of which is found in only few birth control pills. Other pills are however found to be containing a combination of estrogen and progestin analogue. For an extended period, drug makers have done several experiments including several contraceptives formulations. The experiments included new types of progestins that had levels of estrogen that is varying. The goal of such experiments was to maintain the effectiveness of the Pills while ensuring that their side effects were reduced. The contraceptives work through the recapitulation of the natural response of the body. During the pregnancy period, ovaries release progesterone and estrogen which then are transported to the receptors within the pituitary. The gland releases gonadotropins which are hormones responsible for the stimulation of ovulation. Progesterone and estrogen; that is produced in a lesser amount, block signal release leading to ovulation. In case a woman is not made pregnant in such a cycle, progesterone will not be released in the ovaries, which then lead to the levels of the hormonal drop. Pituitary then releases gonadotropins which are important in the orchestration of the ovulations next round.

Conclusion

Hormone comes from the word the Greeks and means "urging on." Hormones that are considered as natural are in most cases chemical molecule that is elaborated in the glands and later enters into the blood stream. They then exert a given amount of effect on the cell activities within the body. Mammals happen to be the same in one way or another even though not genetically identical. The main difference, however, is in the manner in which the hormones work. Unlike vitamins that are exo- genous and are mainly provided through food consumption, hormones get considered as endogenous catalysts. Hormonal contraceptives have side effects that may be undesirable. These types of contraceptives are also associated with events that are adverse and also serious complications to women who are obese; such complications would include deep venous thrombosis. Studies have also shown that the rate of oral contraceptive pill failure among the women in America ranges from nine to thirty percent. The main reason associated with such failure is daily compliance requirements. Also, forty percent of the total number of American women happened not to be satisfied with the available contraceptive methods. Them that did not like such methods happen not to be satisfied with the methods and were inconsistent in the use of the method putting them at risk of having a pregnancy that is unintended. Other contraceptives which are reversible and long-acting and dont require compliance, happen to be having a failure rate that is typically lower. Their percentages with regards to typical use and perfect use failure happen to be very close. The available methods are also either device like the IUD or hormonal.

Reference

Qin, Z., Huang, S., Yu, Y., & Deng, H. (2013). Dithiolopyrrolone Natural Products: Isolation, Synthesis and Biosynthesis. Marine Drugs, 11(10), 3970-3997. htt...

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Research Project Proposal on Non-hormonal Contraceptive Methods. (2021, Jun 17). Retrieved from https://proessays.net/essays/research-project-proposal-on-non-hormonal-contraceptive-methods

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