Students are reading, speaking and writing practices has been found to be positively influenced by digital pedagogical practices. E-portfolio saves time in airing instructional objectives and carrying out online courses. Learning in the digital world is enhanced through the incorporation of real-time auditory and visual communication which promotes grade students reading and comprehension skills through voice learning aids.
The use of robots in learning will improve learner's comprehension and reading skills since the approach also improves self-esteem. Zosh, Hirsh-Pasek, Golinkoff, and Parish-Morris, (2016) mentioned that learning becomes meaningful when the content being studied involves social interaction. Also, guided exploration should be set towards achieving learning goals. As far as technology provides ground for children development, much needs to be put across to control learners from content specific advertising that is widely placed on online platforms.
Use of Technology in the Early Childhood Education
Technology has played a vital role in improving education at various levels. According to Zosh, Hirsh-Pasek, Golinkoff, and Parish-Morris (2016), screen media have become common in the life of young children. This issue makes it significant in understanding the influence of particular technologies including e-books and tablets for reading ability and the most exceptional ways of including them in the kid's routine both at home and in the classroom. Zosh, Hirsh-Pasek, Golinkoff, and Parish-Morriss (2016) tried to find out what Science of Learning tells people concerning the features of applications which can increase or decrease educational potential. The findings generated with 'Science of Learning' in identifying the different elements of applications having the right learning possibility include the fact that studying takes place when a learner is active, engaged, when the content is meaningful, when learning is exploited by social interaction, and when the guided exploration in a learning goal is best (Zosh, Hirsh-Pasek, Golinkoff, and Parish-Morriss, 2016)). Zosh, Hirsh-Pasek, Golinkoff, and Parish-Morriss, 2016 concluded that even though apps are useful in learning, app developers, parents, educators, and policymakers should use science on the way children learn to assist in the evaluation and creation of applications.
In the recent years, there has been a rapid growth of the computers (tablets) in both schools and households. Learning purposes for tablet computers include the utilization of math apps in engaging students in their mathematical learning (Zhang, 2015). However, there is limited research on the efficiency of mathematics applications for the students who are struggling In filling in this gap, Zhang (2015) researched fourth graders where half of the learners had disabilities. The study conducted also found out that using mathematics applications enhanced the learning of students and it even closed the success gap that exists among struggling and typical students.
Using Robots in the Education of Young Children
Robots is one of the technologies that have been used in the education of the young children. The quick enhancement of technology in this 21st century has made use of different media elements in the educational system to be prevalent. Toh et al., (2016) synthesized the results of research studies for the past ten years and the impact of robotic elements on education and children. The primary factors which were analyzed include effects of robots on kids development and behavior, view of shareholders (educator, children, and parents) on robots in education, and response of learners on robot appearance and design. The models used in validating the use of machines in education non-experimental (longitudinal, cross-sectional, case studies, and anecdotal) and quasi-experiments (Toh et al., 2016). The findings of Toh indicated that the robot affects the youngster's skills growth that can be convened into language, intellectual, social, and theoretical skills. The mixed results also suggested that the parent's perceptions on using machines on teen's education while designing influenced the understanding of robots capabilities and characters ((Toh et al., 2016; Zosh et al., 2016).
Helping Students Who Are Struggling to Read
The students who have behavioral and do experience emotional disorders do have deficits in academic, communal, and behavioral areas. Also, in the educational sector, the primary importance is reading achievement (Louick et al., 2016; Mcdaniel, Duchaine, & Jolivette, 2010). Students that have Emotional and Behavioral Disorders (E/BD) and are struggling to read do have negative in both school and post-school results. Furthermore, it is significant to efficiently correct the reading problems of learners having E/BD because of the severity of the results (Mcdaniel, Duchaine, & Jolivette, 2010). The article also observed how the teachers and learners who engaged in the 8 weeks Corrective Reading involvement interpret things and they regarded it helpful as it enabled them to know the areas they should improve. Mcdaniel, Duchaine, and Jolivette, (2010) used the interview method in getting more information concerning the issue of E/BD.
Ways of Helping Students With E/BD
One of the ways of helping the students who are suffering from emotional and behavioral disorders include individualizing instruction (Mcdaniel, Duchaine, and Jolivette, 2010; Stover, Sparrow, & Siefert, 2017). It is the easiest way of helping those students since there will be a productive teacher-student relationship. Although there have been good instructional practices of developing the reading skills from the foundation, learners have continued to lag in literacy learning. Most of them are not motivated, and this makes them not to regard themselves as readers making them be disengaged in general learning (Stover, Sparrow, & Siefert, 2017; Louick et al., 2016). Stover, Sparrow, and Siefert (2017) share an instructional framework that was established with Sparrow who is one of the authors in teaching a struggling student. The attitudinal survey used revealed that the learner's interest was in tractors and dump trucks. With the information that was acquired, the student's interest and distinguished education in meeting his wants were regarded. In essence, the learner also took part in learning which further helped in developing his self-efficacy (Stover, Sparrow, & Siefert, 2017). Therefore, the authors think that posit of this instructional method might inform the mainstream teachers that continue seeking the ways of improving literacy success to all the learners.
Motivation can be utilized as a tool for reading among the struggling middle-class readers. Louick et al., 2016 explored Reading Comprehension for 112 struggling middle-class readers on urban and semi-urban areas and the data sources used include self-reported reading surveys and random student motivation interviews. Hierarchical linear modelling was also applied in modelling growth in RC and evaluating the three elements of motivational reading-intrinsic, extrinsic, and self-efficacy motivation to slopes and intercepts of reading comprehension (Louick et al., 2016). The interviews with the students were coded for the albescence and presence of the three motivation constructs. Even though interview and HLM analysis were concurrently done, follow up, or repeated analysis was also steered through the use of data methods basing on primary results. The results from the study include the essential impact of self-efficacy on the primary status of RC and inconsistent area. The results showed that student's from the semi-urban areas had high RC scores whereas the ones from the urban areas scored highly in motivation analysis. The other finding is the measurable influence of self-efficacy which predicts that Reading Comprehension may be explained comprehensively using the qualitative results in which readers who are struggling have different motivational views that influence them in different ways contingent on the environment (learning).
Improving Student’s Learning Effectiveness
The research that was conducted with Wang used both Web-based valuation and two-tier Web-based analytical assessment in developing an e-learning system called 'GPAM-WATA.' The system consists of two designs that include individualized e-learning annotation and individualized dynamic evaluation (Wang, 2014). Additionally, the research adopted quasi-experiments to apply the GPAM-WATA system in schooling speed unit in the mathematical class. One hundred and seven 6th grade students from (4 different classes) in the primary school took part in the research. According to Wang (2014), before the remedial classes, all the students got prior knowledge valuation and pretest both summative and two-tier analytical evaluation. After that, the learners got remedial teaching in which they accomplished all the given coaching activities. After the remedial classes, the student was given a post-test for two-tier evaluation and summative valuation. Wang (2014), then made a conclusion that the electronic learning approaches having individualized self-motivated valuation is efficient in enhancing educational success of a student. However, individualized electronic learning adaptive prescription influences part of the reading time which the learners employ on electronic Learning resources that they use in enhancing education.
Louick, R., Leider, C. M., Daley, S. G., Proctor, C. P., & Gardner, G. L. (2016). The motivation for reading among struggling middle school readers: A mixed methods study. Learning and Individual Differences, 49, 260-269. doi 10.1016/j.lindif.2016.06.027
Mcdaniel, S. C., Duchaine, E. L., & Jolivette, K. (2010). Struggling Readers with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders and Their Teachers: Perceptions of Corrective Reading. Education and Treatment of Children, 33(4), 585-599. doi 10.1353/etc.2010.0009
Stover, K., Sparrow, A., & Siefert, B. (2017). "It ain't hard no more!" Individualizing instruction for struggling readers. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth, 61(1), 14-27. doi 10.1080/1045988X.2016.1164659
Toh, E., Poh, L., Causo, A., Tzuo, P. W., Chen, I., & Yeo, S. H. (2016). A Review on the Use of Robots in Education and Young Children. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 19(2). https://www.jstor.org/stable/jeductechsoci.19.2.148
Wang, T. H. (2014). Developing an assessment-centered e-Learning system for improving student learning effectiveness. Computers & Education, 73, 189-203. doi 10.1016/j.compedu.2013.12.002
Zhang, M., Trussell, R. P., Gallegos, B., & Asam, R. R. (2015). Using math apps for improving student learning: An exploratory study in an inclusive fourth-grade classroom. TechTrends, 59(2), 32-39. doi 10.1007/s11528-015-0837-y
Zosh, J. M., Hirsh-Pasek, K., Golinkoff, R. M., & Parish-Morris, J. (2016). Learning in the Digital Age: Putting Education Back in Educational Apps for Young Children. Encyclopedia of early childhood development.
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