Even though the main agenda of the political activism of the 1960s was to liberate women, some people were not on the same page since they are claiming that women should not be given serious roles in the society. Various people including women started to create different groups which in turn made the feminism to become more effective since many people started to understand especially women what their true identity means to them (Davis 173). In the year 1966, an organization was formed in order to address issues to do with giving or offering the Federal help in the daycare centers to women who are working as mothers and guaranteeing to them that they have the right to abortion if necessary, making sure that their receive equal pay as men in their workplaces and eliminating gender-based job discrimination. This research paper aims at addressing the issues that need to be known about the happenings during the Countercultural movements of the 1960's. the events in this research paper are important as it gives the highlight about the way culture became an integral part of both men and women and how women fought for their rights and opportunities they deserved.
History and Development
The Countercultural Movement of 1960's was a group whose values and ways of behavior differed considerably from those of the ordinary society and were considered to be in the opposition of the mainstream society's cultures. These groups were conspicuous in Europe and parts of America and basically expressed the ethos and aspirations of a given population. Some of the examples of these groups included Bohemianism and the Romanticism (Davis 176). The counterculture concept was developed by John Milton Yinger who derived the name counterculture from the fact that the group was always in total conflict with the normal values of the surrounding dominant culture or society. One of the main perceptions given to the definition of the group was a culture that opposed mass culture or middle class and in most cases would be conceptualized as a generational clash and rejection of older values. Counterculture had no political or religious affiliations and had nothing to do with social class, but rather rejection and criticism to the existing powerful institutions with the hope and struggle of a better society (Tarrow 218). Generally, countercultural movements tend to rise into existence then decline, leaving a lasting effect on the conventional cultures. The famous countercultural movements first came into existence in the 1960s during the rise of conventional cultures and generated its own brand of remarkable literature, which was referred to as the underground press.
Some of the notable counterculture groups of the 1960s included the Bohemians, Romantics, Beats and the Hippies. This groups left cultural shadows that moved and shook the mainstream cultures. In the United States, the emergence of the 1960's countercultural movement was mainly concern with the rejection of the 1950s social norms. There was a widespread of youths rejecting the cultural standards that were set by their parents, which was characterized by racial segregation and the support of the Vietnam War (Davis 179). In this note, many young people feared the involvement of America in the war citing it would lead to a nuclear holocaust (Tarrow 218). Additionally, widespread tension in the country with a society that tended to flow along generational ties regarding race, traditions, sexual mores, human rights, the American dream and the rights of women. These groups took advantage of social media to advance their pleas concerning their social issues. The Hippies group was among the most active countercultural groups in America, employing the use of new genres of music, which was mainly pop, rock music and other new considerations in spirituality (Miller 158). The counterculture movement in the United States lasted from 1964 to around 1972 and involved political activism, campus uprisings and public protests. Loud and defiant music, sexual liberation, drugs and communitarian experiments characterized the movement. The movement managed to divide the United States population with some attributing that the movement reflected the country's ideals of free speech and equality. On counter-reaction to the movement, the authorities banned some of the group's activities such as books, music, and other obscure media also restricting political gatherings.
Apart from the United States, other countries also experienced counterculture movements. England was hit in the late 1960s by the influence of the movements in the United States as the youth readily identified with their American counterparts the need to kick out the older generation and their cultural beliefs (Turner 261). Youths employed the use of music as their weapons in the revolt against the class system. Some of the key instruments borrowed from the United States was the rock music as a tool in the social uprisings, which in turn gave rise to the emergence of powerful musical talents such as the Beatles and Rolling Stones. There was much resemblance in the counterculture movement in England, the United States as there was a collaboration between the two groups, and both were anti-nuclear weaponry.
In the Soviet Union, anti-cultural movements came into force in the 1990s, after the society became weary of real-life facts. Initially, the Soviet government strictly promoted the conventional Russian culture, which prohibited divorce and other vices such as alcohol abuse. These facts evoked society's urge to seek for a life that is out of fiction by calling for changes. The countercultural movements were characterized by the use of the graphical description of sex, explicit language and violence. Another form of resistance was the use of poems, movies and other literature materials that expressed criticism towards the existing cultural norms (Turner 265). During the late 1990s, Russian culture war gained increasing popularity on the internet, with many websites posting generated short stories focusing on sex, violence and drugs. Occasionally, Most of the featured trends included sex and violence, the deliberate misspelling of common words, wide use of overt language, non-conformity and bad political topics. Another conspicuous trend was the development of the Russian pop culture, which embedded traditional Russian styles of music.
The countercultural trend in Australia resulted from that taking place in the United States and Great Britain, together with the political crisis in the country in1975. Major protests were held in the North Queensland town of Kuranda and other popular cities, which was invaded by Bohemians and other lifestyles in the country. The invasions of the hippy group in the Kuranda raised anxiety and pressure from the police and the media (Turner 264). Many pro-movement believed that the old and conservative world was ending to usher in a new Australia. The protesters did everything to show the government that they were unhappy with the old system of governance. The political turmoil made use of music and film in the country both reflecting the new way of living and a deviation from the old.
Many movements related to countercultural issues were advanced within the counterculture of the early 1960s. in today's issues, the developing issues include the gender equality, marriage equality, segregation of people of color and feminism. The movements' activities extended well beyond the 1960s into modern generations greatly altering the economic, social, cultural and political landscapes of many countries, a good example is the United States of America. Women in the modern day world have embraced an understanding of themselves and determined to change their image in society (Tarrow 218). The modern woman celebrates the differences between gender and claims empowerment as different beings from men. Unlike in the past, women assert themselves as men or rather equal to men in all human aspects. However, women still find themselves as second class citizens. With the use of egalitarianism, this movement hopes that everyone in society would be equal and still be better off. During the 60s hippie's counterculture movement, it was all about women's liberation, while today it is marriage equality.
In America, counterculture has involved a litany of different political views. The main American countercultures have revolved around the left-wing ideals, with an example being the anti-racists, feminists, pacifists, anti-capitalist, environmentalist and most recent one, anti-establishment. A good example of the counterculture movement effects that have reeled to the modern days is the tattoos culture (Tarrow 218). Tattoos came into popularity as a result of the punk movement, which linked tattoos with rebellion and individualism. Up to these days, tattoos still exist representing the puck movement that shared ideologies entrenched in anti-establishment and anti-racist practices. Additionally, popular tattoos use native languages to express cultural significance in different societies.
Modern countercultures are extensions of the historical movements that came into the mainstream at the expense of black people. For example, the hippie's movement of the 1960s assumed the Asian and native cultural practices. Today, thrift shops are transforming to high scale boutiques that price out people by necessity as a result of the countercultural trend. The movements have also evolved to peg their interests on political ideologies to challenge the existing status and practices (Tarrow 218). With its roots anchored in activism, the movements are challenging imperialism, capitalism and gender norms among other issues that create drifts and conflict in the ideas of the existing generations. Basically, the main purpose of counterculture movement is to oppose any existing practice in a bid to replace them with emerging trends; this makes it an everlasting trend.
According to the Betty, the number of women who were attending College in the 1960s was not many due to the fact many women had not realized their true identity in the society that they were living. After the 1960s, many of the women started to involve themselves with various movements such as the civil rights movements and New Left. Although these movements were being guided by men, women also got chances of having duties in the movements. The duties that were given to women included typing and making of coffee in the office. Although women fought hard to realize their identity, they were not thy only people who started the group that became the first to demand for equality in the year 1960s (Turner 261). Various groups such as the Mattachine Society and Daughters of Bilitis Together with the Laws against homosexuals have been there before trying to campaign for years in order to discourage gay discrimination. A good example is seen in the year 1969 June when the New York City Police tried to close down a gay bar known as Stonewall Inn in Manhattan. The attempt by the police led to many riots and further formation of the Gay Liberation Front. Homosexuals and lesbians were later treated as normal and became a national civil rights issue. What ought to have been done include the initiative by the men who feel women need to have the same right as the men being part of the organization formed by the women, though left to operate as an independent body. That way, the need to grant women rights would have been seen in two perspectives.
When feminist men fight for the right of women, it becomes more acknowledgeable that when only women fight for their rights. Forming organizations that support the education of girls to join the institutions of higher learning is another way in which the fight by women can be taken to another level. Through g...
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