Background and Literature review
Globalization across the world requires interaction among persons from different backgrounds to become part of the world economy. Since workplace is evolving and changing, organizations need to be more diversified to stay competitive. This makes multiculturalism an essential aspect of diversity in EU nations, New Zealand and Australia (Need, 2006). Workplace as a multicultural environment acknowledges the reality that employees differ in some ways, culture, ethnicity, personality, religion, sexual orientation, disability, social status, marital status, gender, and age (Kossek, Lobel, and Brown, 2006). The diversity issues are different in every country; however, the most predominant issue of diversity in the workplace is race, gender, religion and other ethnic minorities. Consequently, diversity has become a hot button issue in educational, corporate, legal, and political arenas. Most organizations are reluctant to promote and hire ethnic minorities and female employees for senior positions.
Some HRM diversity practices are not linked to an increase in diversity. Richard, (2000) state that the inclusion of diversity training in an organization does not increase overall workforce diversity and top management diversity. Lorbiecki and Jack, (2000) found that organizations with higher diversity have high employee turnover and provide lower salaries. However, most organizations have benefited from the vale of workforce diversity. Gilbert and Ivancevich, (2000) states that workforce diversity improves innovative ideas, enhances the quality of HRM decisions and provide solutions to organizational problems. Organizations that have an efficient diversity management benefit through bottom line returns. Dowling, (2008) in his study realized that a diverse workforce provides a company with a better quality solution to increase organizational profitability, effectiveness, and efficiency, provide a better quality solution and display more cooperative behavior. Managing diversity effectively is, therefore, instrumental in organizational success by improving corporative market and enabling access to a changing marketplace (Richard and Johnson, (2001). Thus, valuing diversity increases the quality of organizational life and is a source of competitive advantage, which is good for business.
While diversity management revolves around employees in a multicultural environment, the HRM function to be the custodian of the people management process. Both diversity management and HRM contribute to individual differences. More research indicates that the use of HRM toolkits address inequality during appraisal, recruitment, reward and advancement, which in turn enhance creativity, improve inclusiveness and enhance creativity in a multicultural workforce (Stevens, Plaut, and Sanchez-Burks, (2008). Other studies have shown that effective diversity management is attainable using suitable HRM strategies. HRM strategies are instrumental in overcoming group and individual process problems. These strategies increase organizational knowledge creation, flexibility, learning, and the development of a work environment that is conducive to diversity management (Aghazadeh, 2004). Managing diversity should, therefore be part of human resource policies and practices.
According to Kreitz, (2008) an organization that manages diversity well benefit from both cultures specific and synergistic advantages. However, Dowling, (2008) feel that diversity render integration and communication difficult because workers fail to understand one another and there is more confusion, ambiguity, and complexity that need managing diversity. Managing diversity, therefore, includes proactive actions that promote a heterogamous workforce that minimize threats to diversity and maximize opportunities (Jones, Pringle, and Shepherd, 2000). Thus, diversity management, therefore, means forming a comprehensive environment, which embraces workers individual differences while providing opportunities for employees to realize their full potential. Though several aspects of diversity have been examined, no comprehensive model exists.
Statement of the Problem
In a multicultural environment, the HRM faces some challenges. Few studies have focused on Workplace Diversity Management, and little empirical researches are accessible on diversity concerns related to HRM practices. If diversity is not handled carefully, it may lead to demoralization. Since most companies are not doing enough to build diversity by including a proportionate share of other ethnicities and races, there is a need for diversity strategies. Heterogeneous workforce indicates a different range of experiences and backgrounds, have different priorities and use of different languages; all this interfere collaboration and teamwork (Jones, Pringle, and Shepherd, 2000). There are also high risks of conflicts, disagreements, and tensions because of different ideologies. This is why organizations need not to ignore such actions in a multicultural environment because it may lead to more interpersonal conflicts and turnover. An organization should have an understanding and create awareness to promote diversity. Thus, people from different cultures, experiences, and backgrounds can bring solutions that place them in a high productive environment. The researcher will, therefore undertake research on workplace diversity management in a multicultural environment.
Significance/Rationale of the Study
The research will benefit both employees and employers since respect for individual differences in a multicultural environment can increase marketing opportunities, increase productivity, improve business image and creativity. The study also looks to promote full inclusion of HRM in combating discrimination based on ethnicities and races (Need, 2006). The study will benefit organizations that see diversity as a key strategy that gives a company competitive advantage, which is good for business. The research will also provide resource materials for future readers, the government, and relevant ministries, and act as a reference point for some private and public institutions, which could be instrumental in strengthening diversity in HR policies. The study will also attempt to fill the gap of knowledge and form a resource material by promoting a working environment that encourages employers to create diversity.
Objectives of the Study
The general objective of this research is to review the literature of diversity practices of human resource management in a multicultural environment. The research will also develop a conceptual framework to help organizations in developing HRM policies and strategies to manage diversity efficiently.
The following research objectives and research questions will be addressed:
To determine the manner in which demographic factors influence the implementation of HRM practices.
To determine the extent in which multicultural factors influence the implementation of HRM practices.
To find out the relationship between implementation of HRM practices and diversity management programs.
To determine the implications of diversity managerial role in implementing HRM practices.
How do demographic factors influence the implementation of HRM practices?
To what extent did multicultural factors influence the implementation of HRM practices?
What is the relationship between implementation of HRM practices and diversity management programs?
What are the implications of diversity managerial role in implementing HRM practices?
Research Approach and Method
The research seeks to bring into attention how the analysis of diversity practices of human resource management in a multicultural environment. Data will be obtained from the secondary sources related to the topic of the study and affirm the preliminary findings to build a succinct correlation. The study will focus on literature-based approach where data is got by reviewing the available literature. By investigation of the available literature concerning the topic of the study, the study will incorporate a deductive paradigm that will be confirmed through induction (DAbate, Eddy, and Tannenbaum, 2003). The literature-based approach will also provide perceptions and reasons regarding the subject from the secondary sources (Aphra, 2004). Based on the approach used, more evidence correlating with the research question will provide exhaustive and transparent assistance in caring out the research. Therefore, the research design is essential to enable the results to be valid and reliable.
Search StrategyThe search will involve the use of an electronic database to procure necessary information by reviewing past researches and works. The study review methods will involve trustworthy databases and authentic sources to gather relevant information for the research (Aphra, 2004). Databases like PsycINFO, NHS database, Science Citation Index, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and MEDLINE assisted in caring out the research. Further sources like conference abstracts, relevant sources of internet and books will assist in collecting data. Thus, a broad scan on the literature review will be carried out, and articles and research journals on diversity practices of human resource management would be essential sources to procure information on the topic of the research.
Research Data and Analysis
The research will utilize the information available in secondary sources regarding the topic of diversity practices of human resource management in a multicultural Environment. The research will consult the archived literature to understand the concept of diversity practices of HR in management. Utilizing the secondary information will save on time and cost of data collection. The diversity of the data sources is essential for the study because there is the need to develop a solid relationship between the variables of research questions based on evidence from the secondary sources. The journals and articles that will provide relevant and robust information on the analysis of diversity practices of human resource management in a multicultural environment will be selected to assist in compiling the research. After selection of the research journals and articles, essential information will be gathered to review the literature. Journals and articles will also be selected, and the findings of the study will be analyzed to support the topic of the research. All the data considerations will be bound by the research timeline and scope.
The results concerning the study will be the property of the author and the affiliated institution. However, the study will be available for the government and other stakeholders to utilize the knowledge to form strategies and make decisions. The study will highlight diversity factors like race and ethnicity as significant obstacles to implementation of HRM policies and practices. The traditional view of men leadership, especially in top executive posts, is another contribution since many studies reveal non-acceptance of male-dominated culture influence is common in most organization. Thus, the study will touch on how, diversity management programs, cultural factors, demographic factors, and diversity managerial roles relating to the implementation of HRM Practices. The research document will be available online on the university academic website but will be protected by the copyright regulations. The verdicts and suggestions of the exposition will be made available because it will provide essential aspects of organizational and performance transformations within organizations.
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