Bacteria are a type of biological cell made up of cytoplasm and enclosed within a membrane. Bacteria range from shapes, from spheres to rods and spirals. Inhabiting in water, soil, radioactive waste and portions of the Earth's crust, bacteria enjoy a symbiotic and parasitic relationship with both animals and plants. Bacteria are essential in most stages of the nutrient cycle through recycling of nutrients such as the fixation of nitrogen from the atmosphere. Some of the pathogenic bacteria attack the intestinal tract and in worst cases cause respiratory infections such as tuberculosis which kills around two million people per year. The purpose of writing this paper is to analyze the ways of identifying bacteria and how to medically reduce its functionality.
Background Information about the Patient
In this particular case, a four-year-old female was presented to the emergency room experiencing a high fever of 102F, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. The patient was suspected to be infected with the bacteria species Salmonella due to her young age which increases her chances of being affected and also due to the prevalence of high fever, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. Researchers believe that the use of antibiotics such as penicillin has put selective pressure on Salmonella bacteria and as a result, the bacteria have evolved increasing resistance to the various antibiotic types. The research suggests that Salmonella bacteria are adapting specifically to survive within human hosts. To diagnose Salmonella infection, a fecal sample was obtained from the young female to be analyzed since most patients with acute fever continue to excrete Salmonella in their stool.
The antibiotics prescribed are the best in dealing with Salmonella bacteria as long as the dosage is adhered to. The patient was prescribed to the following antibiotics; ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin, ampicillin, triple sulfa and trimethoprim. Ciprofloxacin works against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria by inhibiting DNA gyrase, type II topoisomerase and topoisomerase IV. It will work on the bacteria because it will prevent its development. The amoxicillin will be effective because it exerts bactericidal activity through inhibition of the synthesis of the bacterial wall and binding the penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs). Therefore, it will reduce the autolytic effect. Ampicillin is an irreversible inhibitor of enzyme transpeptidase, an important process needed to make by bacteria to make cell walls. It is bacteriolytic and will inhibit cell wall synthesis in binary fission. Triple sulfa will be an effective choice because it binds and inhibits dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS). The enzyme is an essential nutrient and has to be synthesized in the bacteria and the drug will prevent this process thus killing the bacteria. Trimethoprim binds to dihydrofolate reductase and also inhibits the decrease of dihydrofolic acid (DHF) to form a tetrahydrofolic acid (THF). Therefore, it will stop the bacteria synthesis because THF is an essential part of the synthesis.
The method used is the Kirby-Bauer test that tests the sensitivity of the bacteria to antibiotics. It measures how the bacteria have affected the antibiotics and wafers are placed on an agar plate and left to incubate. If the antibiotic kills the bacteria or prevents its growing, a zone of inhibition is observed around the bacteria (Singh, Misra & Prasad, 2016). The method was used to test the effectiveness of the five antibiotics chosen. Using the grain stain reaction, the fecal sample is obtained from the young female patient is spread on the dish which is filled with a Salmonella-growth-promoting gel using the proper streaking technique. The culture is then observed for growth for a period duration of between one to three days. A plating media which contains lactose with a PH indicator and nonenterics inhibitor may be also included as well. Most Salmonella strains usually grow about 2-4mm in diameter and are motile under the microscope. Further testing is then conducted to find out the specific type of Salmonella if something grows.
Bacteria Identification and Gram Staining
The general steps used in bacteria identification include gram stain, cell morphology, cell arrangement, colony morphology, and biochemical test. Gram staining is a four-part technique that uses certain dyes to make a bacterium cell to stand out against its background. Cell morphology considers the shape and arrangement of the cell (Peck & Badrick, 2017). Colony morphology concentrates on the colony characteristics such as the size, shape, and pigmentation. With the abundance of nutrients supply, bacteria grow extremely fast coming up with different looking colonies in their form, margin, elevation, surface, opacity, and chromogenesis. The biochemical test considers the bacteria's the DNA molecule, the ability to synthesize different protein enzymes and different sets of biochemical reactions that the bacteria species can carry out.
The results from the use of the antibiotics above show that the bacteria can be eliminated effectively using them. The reactions show that the bacterium can susceptible to elimination. However, further research should be done to determine if exposure to the antibiotics over a long time could be effective or the bacteria would develop resistance. The bacterium was also resistant to triple sulfa at some temperatures.
Ciprofloxacin Effective and kills the bacterium. It works against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria by inhibiting DNA gyrase, type II topoisomerase and topoisomerase IV
Amoxicillin Effective and prevents the synthesis of the bacterium. It exerts bactericidal activity through inhibition of the synthesis of the bacterial wall and binding the penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs).
Ampicillin Effective and kills the bacterium. It is an inhibitor of enzyme transpeptidase, an important process needed to make by bacteria to make cell walls. It is bacteriolytic and will inhibit cell wall synthesis in binary fission.
Triple sulfa The bacterium is resistant. It is an essential nutrient and has to be synthesized in the bacteria and the drug will prevent this process thus killing the bacteria.
Trimethoprim Effective and kills the bacterium by preventing its growth. It binds to dihydrofolate reductase and also inhibits the decrease of dihydrofolic acid (DHF) to form a tetrahydrofolic acid (THF).
The data in the table above shows that the resistance of bacteria to antibiotics can be reduced if their performance is understood. The same was found in the analysis of poultry (Adzitey, 2015).
Discussion and Conclusion
The results indicated that the bacterium was resistant to triple sulfa but the other four antibiotics were effective in eliminating it. The other four antibiotics were found to be effective and can be used in the treatment process. Salmonella enteritidis causes diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, and can lead to death if the victim is dehydrated and not treated. The infections are treated differently because they have different symptoms and effects. Salmonella enteritidis is a non-motile bacterium which is gram-negative, rod-shaped and does not form spores. Salmonella is transmitted to people by petting or cuddling animals which have been infected by the bacteria (Wang et al., 2015). The individual then uses the contaminated hand when eating hence gets infected and can easily infect other people especially infants, young children, and elder seniors.
After confirming that the young female patient had been infected with Salmonella enteritidis, medication provision is the next step. Since salmonella infection causes dehydration due to diarrhea, treatment focuses on replacing fluids and electrolytes. Anti-diarrheal is given to the patient to help relieve abdominal pains while antibiotics are prescribed to kill the bacteria. With the prevalence of Salmonella bacteria resistance towards certain antibiotics, precaution should be taken before deciding on a particular antibiotic (Thung et al., 2016). The best prevention is to avoid eating risky foods like half-cooked eggs and meat. The other one is to clean hands before eating. Others include good refrigeration of food, good cooking methods, cleanliness and separating cooked food from the uncooked food.
Adzitey, F. (2015). Antibiotic classes and antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial isolates from selected poultry; a mini review.
Peck, M., & Badrick, T. (2017). A review of contemporary practice and proficiency with Gram staining in anatomical pathology laboratories. Journal of Histotechnology, 40(2), 54-61.
Singh, P., Misra, R., & Prasad, K. N. (2016). Reliability of Kirby-Bauer Disk Diffusion Method for Detecting Doripenem Susceptibility in Oxidase Positive Non-Fermenting Gram-Negative Bacilli. Int J Health Sci Res (IJHSR), 6, 395-7.
Thung, T. Y., Mahyudin, N. A., Basri, D. F., Wan Mohamed Radzi, C. W. J., Nakaguchi, Y., Nishibuchi, M., & Radu, S. (2016). Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium in raw chicken meat at retail markets in Malaysia. Poultry science, 95(8), 1888-1893.
Wang, Y., Yang, B., Wu, Y., Zhang, Z., Meng, X., Xi, M., ... & Meng, J. (2015). Molecular characterization of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis on retail raw poultry in six provinces and two National cities in China. Food microbiology, 46, 74-80.
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