As a skill, reading is built on various stages. It is a continuous process of learning where each child takes his or her pace in the learning process. Hence, they cannot be pushed or even rushed through the five stages as it will be discussed in the essay below. Each and every stage depends heavily on the previous phase. The five stages are discussed below:
1. Reading and decoding
This is the initial stage of reading development where most children are of ages between six and seven years. Most of them are mostly in grade 1 and beginners of grade 2. In this case, children can read very simple texts that contain high and low-frequency words. Children are also able to learn the relationship that exists between various letters as well as sounds in both printed and spoken words (Owen, 2012).
However, they need instructions and enough practice on the letters and sounds. In this stage, children should be encouraged to read simple stories that have phonic patterns. This should be read at a higher level of the development of language patterns, words, and ideas. By the end of this step, most children can read approximately 600 works but understand more than 6,000 words.
2. Confirmation and Fluency
Most children at this point are of ages between seven and eight years, in grade two and three. In this stage, children can read more stories with an increased fluency. They can consolidate various aspects such as decoding and sight vocabulary. However, they need instructions in order to gain advanced skills in decoding. By the end of this stage, children can be able to read at least 3,000 words.
3. Reading for Learning
Most children in this stage are between grade 4 and 8 with ages between 9 years and 13 years. Here, they can read independently, learn and gain new ideas, develop new attitudes as well as feelings (Owen, 2012). They can be able to study using various reading materials such as newspapers and magazines. Further, they are exposed to more unfamiliar vocabularies through various discussions and writing exercises.
4. Multiple Viewpoints
The age bracket in this stage is between 15 years and 17 years in grades 10 to 12 in high schools. Here, students are able to read from a wide range of materials that may be complex in nature. They could either be a narrative or expository. Students are in a position to deal and argue with multiple viewpoints. Creative and formal wring is also evident in this stage where reading comprehension is even better. However, some students may experience difficulties in listening comprehension.
5. Construction and Reconstruction
These are mostly college students with 18 years and above. Reading is used to satisfy individuals needs which may be done for various purposes. Most students at this stage seek to integrate their knowledge with that of other people in order to synthesize and create more knowledge and develop skills in various disciplines (Snowling & Hulme, 2005). Reading is more rapid and efficient at this stage as they are exposed to complex reading materials. However, it is more efficient and students can write various essays and tests as they integrate their knowledge to give different opinions.References
Owens, Robert E. (2012). Language Development: An Introduction, 8th Edition. [Vital Source Bookshelf Online]. Retrieved from ttps://ambassadored.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781323057193/Snowling, M. J., & Hulme, C. (2005). The science of reading: A handbook. Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub.
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