Family engagement in the early childhood program has positive benefits for children, families, and the school. Family engagement has the potential to increase children's success in the school and significantly reduce academic failure, which has a great impact on the society and also to the economy. Besides school success, other benefits of family engagement to the early childhood program are school readiness, economic gains, and quality of life.
To begin with, children from families that are highly engaged in quality literacy programs are always ready for school (Swick, 2009). These children have more vocabularies and high comprehension skills. Their social competence and intellectual curiosity are high (Lunkenheimer et al. 2008). As the children become highly literate and ready to contribute to the needs of the society, their gains and those of their families influence the society positively. Parents increase children's educational attainment, through the acquisition of better reading and literacy skills. The grades of children whose parents are engaged in the early childhood program are a level higher.
Secondly, family engagement in the early childhood program has economic benefits for both the family and the society. Increase in parental earnings and employment are realized immediately. Family engagement also boosts the children's earnings to outweigh the cost of the family engagement program later in life. Therefore, children can help their parents balance between work and other responsibilities after excelling in life. Criminal activities in children are also lowered through family engagement in early childhood program.
Also, family engagement in the early childhood program helps the children to have an effective and independent lifestyle. Through the two way communication by their parents, multiple forms of ideas and independence are facilitated. Children become responsive to the language spoken by their families. Also, family engagement in early childhood helps the family to take part in decision making to their children education.
Another benefit of family engagement program in early childhood program is that it brings about the quality of life in the children and the community at large. As a result of increased graduation rates, meaningful employment, and economic empowerment there has been a greater impact on the family engagement in the early childhood education.
Lastly, family engagement in early childhood programs develops the children's essential elements of language and communication. Hence, it allows the children to interact freely and meaningfully. Children's exposure to the social environment and the parents have a greater impact their quality of language interactions (Carter, Chard, & Pool, 2009).
Microsystem, Mesosystem, Exosystem, Macrosystem and Chronosystem Systems
Ecological systems theory views the family as a dynamic, constantly changing system that interacts with other systems, for instance, those within the community. The life of a child consists of five systems of interaction; Microsystem, Mesosystem, Exosystem, Macrosystem, and Chronosystem. These systems depend on the kind of life one lives as well as their environment and apply to both the parents and other family members.
The Microsystem consists of the child's most immediate environment including the physical, social and psychological environment. Microsystem offers the child a reference point to the world. It also provides a nurturing tool to the child and may become a haunting experience in the child's memories if the child encounters violence. Children start to trust their parents and other important people around them. The family gives the early microsystem for learning in children. The parent-child relationship impacts the child's personality.
The exosystem involves close relationships within families and creates the bond of being with each other. Exosystems are psychological systems too. Parents might be away from their children physically, but psychologically they remain with them. Exosystem has a high impact on the life of children as they empower a high-quality child care program or cause stress for parents at work. In most cases, exosystem brings stress in families if parents do not attend to it carefully. Indeed, there is a need for a more friendly family practice in the exosystem.
The macrosystem involves the cultural beliefs, the political trends, and the social values. It is a powerful source of energy in the life of a child. The macrosystem influences the way children carry out their relations. It may empower the child's life, and it increases parents effective caring for their children. Macrosystem also helps people to come together for the support of families, children and the society at large (Swick & Williams, 2006).
Mesosystem connects more than one system in which children live. It moves children beyond the two-part relation permeating the life of a child in many dimensions. Mesosystem raises the need for loving adults other than parents to engage in caring the children. Therefore, without mesosystem, families fall into chaos.
Chronosystem frames the dynamics of the families. Hence brings about the parent-child relationship that is evident in the existing dynamics. Chronosystem responds to the different stressors that parents and families incur. Therefore, chronosystem influences positive family functioning and fosters the framework for parents and children both in interactive and dynamic manner.
Ways in Which School Promotes Family-Centered Programs
Children share institutions and participate in different institutional collectives. Children share a common core in institutions despite various home practices. Children's school practices influence their home practices and also their development (Fleer & Hedegaard, 2010). Several ways in which school can promote the family-centered program have been discussed. Barriers such as political factors, financial and attitudinal factors influence the family unit on the child's growth and development
First, Schools have a task of providing personal examples and guidance to families on the political matters. Parents will be willing to accept changes in their leadership and also learn how to bring up their children. The school's philosophy of leadership and strategic plans in children's care will also influence families in bringing up their children. Indeed, schools should encourage and help families to get involved in care of children (Gooding et al., 2011).
Also, schools provide different attitudes and should practice family-centered practices. Children growth and development is more social than a physical process. Hence, there will be new approaches that will best transform the way parents bring up their children. Most families do not impress change in bring up and developing their children. Since there is lack of educational programs for the family-centered programs schools should start promoting it (Bamm & Rosenbaum, 2008).
Another way the school should promote family-centered program is through poverty reduction. Most families have been affected by poverty, and this has influenced the growth and development of children, especially their cognitive functioning and educational attainment. Although most families have poor income, the school can increase the worker's income. The welfare policies will give families high priority to eliminate persistent poverty during children's development.
Developmental Characteristics, Needs and Resulting Implications
Developmental Characteristics Needs Resulting implications for classroom instruction
Cognitive skills (language, Concepts, Problem-solving, Intellectual needs) Learning the language of communication is essential for a four-year-old child.
Concepts of colors are learned at this level. Normative, maturation and also self-actualization is realized in the child. A supporting environment and freedom for speech facilitates the intellectual growth of the child and allows learning to be consistent.
The child observes the culture and the language people around uses and imitates the language.
Affective domain (Aggression, fear, cooperation, and motivation)
Through play, the child learns the concepts of cooperation, motivation and even dependency.
The child also learns to help others. When the child sees another one being praised for helping others. The child then imitates and starts helping other in a view of being rewarded.
Psychomotor skills (body size and growth skills including creeping, walking, and grasping) The head and brain grow faster and they determine the motor and cognitive growth. Children at this level start learning complex skills such as riding a bicycle and skating.
The child also learns to play and kick the ball he sees the coach kicking it.
Developmental Characteristics of the Young Children
Understanding the developmental characteristics of young children helps the teacher to realize the competency of the child. The teacher will also know when the children break the rules and how to handle them. The teacher will have the power to meditate on the children (Pramling Samuelsson & Johansson, 2009). When teachers know the developmental characteristics of the young children, they can execute control over them. (Espy, 2004).
Why Families Need to be Wise and Informed Consumers
Families need to be wise and informed consumers for better health services for their children and the family at large. Taking caution will help the family as consumers to be disciplined and also the market to be discipline (Hibbard, Slovic, & Jewett, 1997). It can be through examining the development of the interventions that target barriers to service use, providing training to increase the engagement of one on one meeting with the family members and also providing service delivery options to the family as consumers (Birkel, Hall, Lane, Cohan, & Miller, 2003).
First, when families, as consumers, are wise and informed, the health care services are reformed and their choices in the market change. The relative cost and the quality of health plan are fundamental to the family. When the family is informed, the educated choices and plans give them a priority. According to Hibbard et al. (1997), informed consumers provide the best quality of care to their families at the lowest price. They also make satisfying choices that are appropriate to the family as a whole. Secondly, the dissemination of the information on the quality of the family as consumers leads to the high selection of the best health plans. Awareness of the quality is hence broadening the consumer's concepts of quality, cost, and health is raised. Health plans should constitute good care of the family at large.
Benefits of the Families being Informed Consumers
The informed families have a benefit of higher quality investments. The purchase made lasts longer and is good for the family's health. Safer investments are also benefiting of the informed families. The family can recognize the essence of protecting their health as they are aware of the products that receive poor safety. Another benefit of families being informed consumers is that there is a money saving investment since they have the necessary information about the product and know where to shop it.
ADDIN Mendeley Bibliography CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Bamm, E. L., & Rosenbaum, P. (2008). Family-centered theory: Origins, development, barriers, and supports to implementation in rehabilitation medicine. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 89(8), 1618-1624. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2007.12.034
Birkel, R. C., Hall, L. L., Lane, T., Cohan, K., & Miller, J. (2003). Consumers and families as partners in implementing...
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