Paper Example on Multi-Morbidity in England: A Survey Analysis

Paper Type:  Research proposal
Pages:  4
Wordcount:  1019 Words
Date:  2023-02-12


Multimorbidity refers to a condition in which the individual has possession of more than two medical conditions (Wallace et al., 2015). Individuals experiencing this condition meet an endless struggle in managing the condition. This paper focuses on a survey of multimorbidity carried randomly in certain population in England and will be able to highlight the summary of the survey from the abstract, methodology, findings and conclusions.

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Although multimorbidity has is associated with a different negative effect, it has no clear report showing its association with loneliness. The article is aimed at presenting the relationship between loneliness and physical mobility, where data from this study is retrieved from a mobility survey (Stickley et al., 2019). The association between loneliness and physical morbidity was done using multivariable logistic regression at a 95% level of confidence.

The survey determined loneliness by the use of an SFQ questionnaire among the selected individuals. Observation stated in the survey shows that higher physical diseases are as a result of loneliness with results showing an increase of loneliness from 1.34 to 2.82 among one and five or more physical disease. A greater association was even established, especially in individuals aged 16-44 years. A stressful life event and stress strongly associates with the multimorbidity (Stickley et al., 2019).

The key research question for the study

Does physical multimorbidity have an effect on individuals' loneliness in a general population, and what could be the potential mediators?

Study design used

Researchers employed the multistage stratified probability design in the survey study.

Analysis of study variables

Dependent variables in the survey are loneliness while the independent variable being the number of physical diseases that are adjusted to socio-demographic variables such as sex, age education, ethnicity and income (Stickley et al., 2019).

Demographic variables including age, sex and income on loneliness and mordibidity are dependent on life quality with 2 physical conditions, qualification of education were either GCSE, A-level, non-degree and degree level. Events that were stressful such as financial problems and death measures were developed depending on occurrence frequency when the individual was <16 or 16 of age (Stickley et al., 2019).

Social support assessment using "certainly true" as score=2, "not true" as score=0 while "partly true" as score=1. With participants answering to if friends and family affected their happiness, their response was developed in scale score with a range of 0 to 14 with the internal score scale a= 0.89 (Stickley et al., 2019).

Statistical techniques employed in the research

Characteristic samples for loneliness applied Chi-square tests while categorical variables were tested using student's t-test. Multivariable regression was conducted to examine the association of physical diseases and loneliness (Stickley et al., 2019). Association of mordibidity and loneliness using Karlson Holm Breen analysis showed 2 diseases outcome. All the socio-demographic variables were controlled to accesses if mediation differs with age class. A weighing sample was generated to represent the national estimate with odds ratio at 95% confidence (CI) with a statistical significance at p< 0.05 (Stickley et al., 2019).

The power, sample size and method used

Data from the study originates from the adult psychiatric association survey conducted in 2007. The survey in England took one year from 2006. National representation was ensured through the selection of a population aged more than 16 in individual households (Stickley et al., 2019).

A file used to keep postal addresses (PAF), was used to sample the postcodes that were basic sampling units. Random selection of selected individuals was made based on the household postcode with about 57% respondent from a population of 7461. Sampling weight was used to correct for all non- response to ensure that the targeted number of individuals is reached. Ethics of study approvement was by the medical research institute (Stickley et al., 2019).

Relevant findings and article purpose

The purpose of the article is to demonstrate how multibodibidity of loneliness is associated with physical conditions of individuals in a general population. In this survey, there was a significant difference between individuals with loneliness and those free from loneliness. Lone individuals were likely to host more physical disorder. An association between loneliness found out that individuals without physical disorder have a lower loneliness percentage of 16.5% than those with physical disorder 30.7% (Stickley et al., 2019). Further results show that individuals with loneliness are highly dependent on drugs and alcohol.

The analysis of social-demographic features is statistically significant between the association of physical morbidity and loneliness. Loneliness rises in those with one disease from 1.59 to 3.78 for individuals with five or more disorder (Stickley et al., 2019). On the age stratifications, the association was stronger throughout every level in the lowest age class of 16-44 (Stickley et al., 2019).

Mediation analysis indicated that stress in younger age16 and below 44 years with a percentage of 11.1% to 30% association between morbidity and loneliness respectively while exhibiting depression at 15%, anxiety 30.2% and an eating disorder at 10.1%. However, there is no significant difference in meditational analysis between smoking, drugs, alcohol use, and obesity (Stickley et al., 2019).

Age stratification in adults used the same variables that are, depression, stress, anxiety and obesity with all of them, showing a significant association between loneliness and morbidity. Stress was the most significant cause of mediation for adults with less than 44 years, while anxiety was the most significant cause for adults with 44 -65 years. Stress was the only significant cause of mediation for individuals aged more than 65, with an association of 11.8% (Stickley et al., 2018).

Study implication

The survey study demonstrates that stressful events at any stage in life have great consequences on the physical disease conditions of individuals, additionally stressful life with poor mental issues such as depression and anxiety are great mediators for loneliness and mordibidity (Stickley et al., 2019). For this reason, the findings can be utilised by healthcare providers to mitigate the effect of stress on patients.


The association between loneliness and morbidity plays a critical role as it helps us understand the later consequences of stress as early and adult life in morbidity, and with the knowledge, we can able to mitigate the consequences.


Stickley, A., &amp; Koyanagi, A. (2018). Physical multimorbidity and loneliness: A population- based study. PloS one, 13(1), e0191651.

Wallace, E., Salisbury, C., Guthrie, B., Lewis, C., Fahey, T., &amp; Smith, S. M. (2015). Managing patients with multimorbidity in primary care. Bmj, 350, h176.

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Paper Example on Multi-Morbidity in England: A Survey Analysis. (2023, Feb 12). Retrieved from

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