Summative evaluation or summative assessment means the assessments of participants with an emphasis on the result of the curriculum in which the individuals participated. Summative assessment, unlike formative valuations, focusses on the outcome of the program (Biggs, 1998). Formative estimates, on the other hand, summarize participants' development through a given duration of time. Numerous assessments often turn out as summative, with a few considered as formative. Summative assessments aim at evaluating students' learning by the end of instructional units by making a comparison against a standard outcome (Harlen, 2017).
Using instructional accommodation increases students' access to academic content through instructions in the general curriculum. Without changing the standards or goals that students work towards, the access to learning materials and programs can increase a student's performance over the assessment period (Biggs, 1998). From the assessment of Vincente Flores and Mingyu Wong, for example, using multiple modalities and making precise instructions for Vincente Flores would ensure improvement in his performance. Elsewhere, for Mingyu Wong, simplifying language and using tapes or demonstrations can ensure her performance boosts. Use of instructional accommodation seeks to find a balance that can give students equal access to learning without compromising the learning content. For a student like Vincente Flores, their capabilities can be boosted by having their tests read to them instead of reading themselves. Oral participation, however, does not interfere with the content of the test but gives them an easy avenue to comprehend the test since oral content often proves easier to comprehend than written ones. Elsewhere, using tapes for Mingyu's assessment allows her to grasp the content of the test at her own pace and comprehend well since orally readout analyses may not offer an opportunity to hear a second time thus impacting negatively on her comprehension.
The proper identification of figurative speech for English Language Learners suggests that the students can learn and understand both spoken and written languages and this, therefore, allows them to communicate correctly using the word absorbed (Biggs, 1998). The objective part of the assessment seeks to test the proficiency of the student. It aims to assess the ability of the student to communicate in the assessment language. For a level 4 student, the objective section of the assessment can be beneficial as they understand well the assessment language already. However, for level 2 students, the communication may still involve difficulty in expressions.
Such students as Mingyu Wong, in level 4, can have the assessment figuratively increase their proficiency. Being relatively advanced as compared to level 2 students, Mingyu Wong can construct sentences of varying complexity in oral discourse. Therefore, taking part in the assessment would assure that the development towards language use, with increased complexity, can soon be achieved (Black, 2005). For the level 4 students, knowledge of the types of language they indulge in may assist in growing their language further. A student in level 4 can easily comprehend the distinction between sentences, knowing which ones form similes and which ones form metaphors as well as alliterations or oxymoron. The objective section of the assessment would prompt them to remember and categorize sentences into their respective categories (Black, 2005). The more they succeed at classifying the phrases, the more they increase their chances of using the phrases in those contexts. An example from the assessment test asks whether the words "America is a melting pot" falls under metaphors, simile, alliteration or oxymoron. The fact that a student will realize that the phrase falls under tropes places them at a better chance of knowing the meaning of metaphors and how to use them in sentences. Therefore, it implies that the student in question may qualify to use metaphors in their sentences, whether in writing or spoken language. The ability to incorporate such complimentary vocabulary in language use elevates a student's level to the next one. Therefore, for the level 4 category, the objective section of the assessments could mean addition in the understanding of many complex forms of the language.
With the performance section of the assessment, the expected learning outcomes imply that the student could advance from using lay language. Additionally, the low-level students would also stop using tape recordings to understand the language they use (Black, 2005). Presentations often aim at enhancing the learning abilities of students by allowing them to picture the content of the sentences they use in expressions. The creativity of the students is also enhanced through presentations and tape recordings. Tape recordings, however, enable students to have a second or third chance at understanding the sentences spoken. From the assessment, the students would not require further explanations to understand the content of a sentence if they can answer the questions in the objective part of the evaluation. Moreover, the student would comprehend the materials from the onset of speech. Further, the performance section of the assessment tests would enable a student of Mingyu's caliber to have superior language skills such that they would not need alternative assessment tests. Since level 4 students still rely on peer buddies to enable them to grasp the assessment languages better, the test would allow them to perform better on their own as their articulation of the speech would mature more as they advance in sentence constructions in the performance section of the assessment.
However, for Vincente Flores, who still cannot speak either conversational or academic language without difficulty, the objective section of the assessment should assist him to grow and reduce the burden of language use. This section should enable him to distinguish sentence structures with regards to understanding the language further. Level 2 language students would benefit from the assessment test by improving their language further by using assistive pictures to construct sentences (Black, 2005). The objective section of the assessment test would assist Vincente's caliber to graduate from oral examination to written ones. Since level 2 students may not fully work independently in the understanding of the performance section of the assessment, the tests would assist them to make the most out of their study buddies. Interaction with the peer buddies would enhance acquisition of the assessment language and further impact their comprehension concerning the language. Soon the students would gain the ability to construct sentences on their own as required for the performance section of the assessment test. Additionally, with the improved acquisition of language from peer buddies, the student would not rely on interactions with the teachers in a class alone (Black, 2005). Communications outside of classes can, therefore, form part of the learning process for these students once the assessment graduates further. The performance section of the assessments aim at fostering understanding and promoting the success of the students at this level.
For the level 2 language students, the simplicity in language can emerge from the use of graphics and pre-taught vocabularies. The assessment, however, involves the use of advanced language proficiency in the performance section; requiring students to write sentences about people, places, and objects. The requirements of this section should be based on the association of artifacts and images with the language itself. Graphic organizers should identify key ideas from the texts and assist in graphically reproducing the texts. Additionally, the students should be allowed to answer the questions orally. Instead of the students being asked bluntly to construct sentences about people, places, and objects, the system could provide a set of pictures to the student. Another way to ensure peak performance of the students without strain would involve allowing them to form sentences using pre-taught vocabulary but in an original context. The assessment system should avoid asking such low-level-language students to express themselves using advanced language to describe people or places. The assessment may ask the students to use these pre-taught vocabularies in sentences of their own making. The assessment should also utilize oral forms of communication since it would boost the performance of the students at their level of comprehension of the language. The assessment should also involve the reading of the tests to the students.
Concerning the objective section, the low-level-language students could be asked to differentiate simpler language forms like identifying subjects and objects in the sentences instead of identifying oxymoron and similes. Such Identification techniques boosts their comprehension of the objective of the study.
For level 4 students, however, the performance section of the summative assessment should involve either oral or written tests. Moreover, the tests, if given in oral format, should require the use of tapes. Alternatively, the assessment could involve the reading of the questions from a written script, to allow for repetition of the question similarly for a subsequent time. For the middle-level-language students, the test should allow for an oral answer to questions as well. However, in cases where the tests come in written formats, the student may answer in written form as well.
The kind of assessment that each student receives involves varied reasons and implications. The reasons could imply the relevance of the curriculum of the student or the instructional need for the student. Different students have different levels of comprehending a particular subject. Thus curriculum and strategy selection should ensure each student's weakness and strengths are explored. Curriculum benefits for students get applied in their respective learning institutions while instructional strategies get applied in daily life to communicate ideas and involve in discussions.
Curriculum content. Summative assessments should benefit students at the language level of Vincente Flores to enable them to learn and understand more complex language. For this group of students, learning the complexities of languages may not be the immediate need for assessment. The students in this language level need to learn simplicity in the language and the need to understand and give simple direction. By understanding the assessment language correctly, the students can graduate from simple understanding of directions to understanding the comparatively complicated course. Understanding figurative communication and knowing the classifications adds value to their knowledge of assessment language. For level 2 students, knowing the kinds of statements which form similes or metaphors may not be essential in the understanding of the dialect. Therefore, allowing these students to start from matching pictures to form sentences, their language proficiency would improve. An expression constitutes a vital aspect of understanding a given language. People strive to learn languages so that they can communicate effectively when the need arises. However, for level 2 students, knowing language classifications such as onomatopoeia may not constitute their growth in learning effective communication in expressing themselves yet. Onomatopoeia, for example, contributes to the complexity of language commanded by an individual as it gives the individual an avenue to explain event occurrence with minimal use of wo...
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