Week 1 discussion: - development management of infants. Child development embraces the physical, social, psychological and emotional developmental changes (CDC.org, 2016). The developmental attributes of a child in the first five years have are essential in understanding the health of the child. In this stage, children learn more quickly, and this is where their aptitude is shaped. According to CDC, developmental milestones depend on the surrounding, but some skills like child crawling and walking are attainable in remarkable stages where if the child is past the age, it is regarded as a developmental disorder (CDC.org, 2016). Case study: A mother brings in her 16-month, Brittany, for a treatment of an acute illness. During the history, the mother reported that her mother in-law is concerned about the toddler's development. Further questioning revealed that Brittany was a term infant born vaginally with no intrapartum complications. Birth weight was 8 pounds 1 ounce, and the current weight is 26 pounds 9 ounces. The mother's description of the feeding, physical and social milestones, they appeared normal.
According to the red flag indicators of growth and development, in the case study one, the 16-month old Brittany has no red developmental red flags. Starting with physical development, at six months, the child was able to roll forward and backward. Another indicator is the ability to hold head and shoulders up when tummy. At her ten months, the baby is cruising which is very normal (Burns et al., 2013). About crawling observation at eight months, it was a normal developmental growth because the crawling red flags are showed at twelve months (Burns et al., 2013). The cruising indicators at nine months state that the child doesn't attempt to stand by holding objects and not attempting to stand (Child Development, 2016). Concerning the mothers complain that she doesn't walk independently at sixteen months which is very normal. At 18 months the red flags indicators state that the toddler is not able to attempt walking without support and standing on their own (Burns et al., 2013). In her social cognitive behavior, she was okay at her sixteen months age.
When differentiating between normal and abnormal development, there are specific behaviors that one expects at every stage of development. Crawling is a developmental indicator whereby if the toddler knocks twelve months without the ability to crawl is an indicator of abnormal development. Other physical, developmental indicators are rolling at six months, attempting to stand at nine months and attempting to walk not later than eighteen months. On social and cognitive behaviors, the child is expected to display some behaviors at specific stages. At nine months the toddler is expected to have the interest to share with others and maintaining eye contact plus use of facial expression. By eighteen months, the child is supposed to have good interest in playing and interaction with other kids. Regarding communication, at one year a toddler is expected to be babbling phrases that imitate talking (Singleton & Shulman, 2014). At eighteen months it's expected that the child can respond to simple commands and also utter simple phrases like (mama and baba) (Singleton & Shulman, 2014). Another cognitive behavior expected from the kid is the ability to hold items with a grip at six months, towering of blocks at eighteen months, and capacity to hold and scribble with toys and crayons (Siegal & Surian, 2012). From the above behaviors, the failure to display the above characteristics is regarded as abnormal development.
The standardized screening tools of child development for infants and toddlers are the gross motor and fine motor where gross motor screens for whole body movement and the fine motor is the small actions involving any body part (Nectac.org, 2016). Cognitive screening tool includes a relationship with the object (Nectac.org, 2016). On social tools, there is emotional behavior, relationship with other persons and feeling status (Nectac.org, 2016). Another standardized screening tool is language and communication (Nectac.org, 2016).
The clinical guidelines and management of child development disorders involve parental and pediatrician cooperation (Mohr, 2008). On the clinical guidelines of child development assessment, the parents are guided on any genetic abnormalities that present at early stages of child development (Hagan et al., 2008). The genetic disorders may cause delayed child development. Clinical guidelines also include the probable infections during early development like respiratory diseases i.e. Pneumonia (Walsh, Czervinske, & DiBlasi, 2010). When assessing developmental disorders another clinical guideline is the nutritional status of the child (Loretz, 2005). The strategies used to manage child developmental disorders include parental management training, developing social skills for children with social cognitive disorders, and ensuring strong parental concern (Hagan et al., 2008). To promote physical activities, we have nutritional supplements together with device aided physical activities (Hagan et al., 2008).
The reason for having clinical guidelines is because other factors influence child development. Parental understanding of the developmental guidelines helps in the recognition of any development shortcomings. In most cases, parents fail to differentiate between normal and abnormal child development. Clinical guidelines are essential when assessing any development disorder like those involving genetic abnormalities (Chiocca & Chiocca, 2014).
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https://www.health.qld.gov.au/cq/child-development/docs/red-flag-a3-poster- banana.pdfChiocca, E. & Chiocca, E. (2014) Study guide to accompany Advanced pediatric assessment (1st
Hagan, J. F., Jr., Shaw, J. S., Duncan, P. M. (Eds.). (2008). Bright futures: Guidelines for health
supervision of infants, children, and adolescents (3rd ed.). Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics.
Loretz, L. (2005). Primary care tools for clinicians (1st ed.). St. Louis, Mo.: Elsevier Mosby.
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Association, 243, 2, 169.Nectac.org (2016). Developmental Screening and Assessment Instruments with an Emphasis on
Social and Emotional Development for Young Children Ages Birth through Five. Retrieved 1 December 2016, from http://www.nectac.org/~pdfs/pubs/screening.pdfSiegal, M., & Surian, L. (2012). Access to language and cognitive development. Oxford: Oxford
University Press.Singleton, N. & Shulman, B. (2014). Language development (1st ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones &
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