Human Nutrition - Presentation Example on Public Health

Date:  2021-04-01 07:25:13
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George Washington University
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Essential idea: a balanced diet is essential to human health. A balanced diet is one that has appropriate amounts of essential nutrients that support the growth of a person. These nutrients are gotten from a variety of foods hence food diversity is necessary to ensure this. Nutrient dense foods are therefore vital in ensuring healthy dietary intake. (Langley-Evans, S C.,77)

Essential nutrients cannot be synthesized in the body. Therefore, they have to be included in the diet. Essential nutrients refer to those that the body cannot synthesize or generate in any other way hence must be supplied in the diet. The term essential mainly relates to the fact that the body cannot produce hence should be provided externally through the diet. They include essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, and water. (Batali, Ken, et al7)

Dietary minerals are essential chemicals elements. Minerals in the body refer mainly to chemical atoms that carry a charge on them. This charge is critical in helping them combine with other elements to form stable complexes in the body tissues such as the bones, teeth, cartilage among other. Minerals also play a vital role in the fluid part of the body. This is because charged minerals release the electrical power that enables the muscle to contract and the nerves to react. They also are valuable in assisting the body to maintain adequate amounts of water in tissue thus controlling pH of the body. (Soni, Madhu G., et al., 348)

Vitamins are chemically diverse carbon compounds that cannot be synthesized by the body. Vitamins are chemical substances that play different roles in the body. They are mainly divided into fat-soluble vitamins. Vitamins serve several functions in the body among others include metabolism, critical roles as co-enzymes and other tailored depending on the vitamin in focus. Excessive consumption of vitamin is deemed dangerous as it has several consequences.( Torvik, Kristin, et al.,231)

Some fatty acids and some amino acids are essential. Some fatty acids are deemed to be essential because they cannot be synthesized in the body. These are linoleic acid (omega 6) and alpha-linoleic (omega-3). These amino acids serve important function among them being the structural components of the central nervous system, circulatory system role among many others. Likewise, of the known 20 amino acids, 9 of them are essential and must be included in the diet these are histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylamine, threonine, tryptophan and valine.

Since essential amino acids play a great role in the synthesis of other amino acids. The non-essential amino acids are mostly synthesized from essential amino acids hence the lack of them in the diet goes a long way to causing protein deficiency in the body leading to a condition known as kwashiorkor. (Soni, Madhu G., et al.,112)

Malnutrition may be caused by a deficiency, imbalance or excess of nutrients in the diet. Hunger in other terms means poor nutrition. Deficiency occurs when there is a lack of certain essential nutrient in the diet like iron which leads to anemia. Excess of nutrients, on the other hand, lead to toxicity lead to hence malnutrition. For example, excessive intake cholesterol intake leads to conditions such as coronary heart diseases. An imbalance may occur when the nutrient is taken needs another intake of another kind of nutrient for it to function properly. For example, is that calcium requires the intake of vitamin D for it to work well. (Batali, Ken, et al7)

Appetite is controlled by a center in the hypothalamus. Hunger is a feeling that the body uses to express the need for food. On the other hand, appetite is the desire to eat. Hunger and appetite sometimes go hand and hand, but in some incidences, they do not. The mechanism of appetite and satiety are a combination of the digestive system, nervous system, and endocrine system. The hypothalamus plays a critical role in helping to regulate appetite. In times of hunger, the digestive system releases some enzymes that send signal to the hypothalamus which response' by sending signals to the brain and arouse hunger feeling. (Soni, Madhu G., et al.,445)

Overweight individuals are likely to suffer hypertension and type II diabetes. There are many factors that are known to cause hypertension. Among them is age, ethnicity, origin, and family history. One of the most crucial factors in the propagation of hypertension is weight. People with high BMI will consequently need more blood to transport nutrients and oxygen. The increased blood volume triggers increased pressure also in the arteries hence increased pressure. This, in turn, results in hypertension. (Torvik, Kristin, et al..231)

Starvation can lead to a breakdown of body tissue. Starvation is an extreme form of hunger that occurs when the body lacks the required nutrients to maintain healthy body function. Hunger leads to reduced metabolism as the bodys tries to conserve energy as much as possible. Weight loss then occurs when the body burns down body fats to generate energy. After the lipids are depleted the body turns to the tissue such as muscles. This goes on for a long time, and it may result in permanent body damages. (Shepherd& Alison Anne,221)

Production of ascorbic acid by some mammals but not others that need the dietary supply. A human does not produce vitamin c due to the changes that occur in their genes resulting in the inability to produce proteins. This, in turn, necessitate the need for it to be provided in the diet and it has been proved that they have the ability to recycle it. There is the minimum required amount for the different physiological stages. These steps include pregnancy, lactation, and other normal individuals. There are several factors that affect the rate of absorption for supply and demand. (Batali, Ken, et al.,7)

Cause and treatment of phenylketonuria (PKU). Phenylketonuria is a very rare condition that is commonly caused by lack of a particular enzyme by the name phenylamine hydroxylase. Deficiency of this particular enzyme results in the accumulation of an amino acid by the name phenylamine in the blood. This high levels then leads it to growth retardation poor mental growth among others. PKU is treated by controlled phenylamine diets.( Langley-Evans, S C.,88)

Lack of vitamin D or calcium can affect bone mineralization and cause rickets or osteomalacia. Calcification of osteoid depends on adequate levels of ionized calcium and phosphate in the extracellular fluid. Vitamin D deficit is most frequently triggered by insufficient contact to sunlight and dietary deficiency that can be caused by other underlying factors. Vitamin D deficiency leads to inadequate mineralization and consequently rickets and osteomalacia. (Torvik, Kristin, et al.,432)

Breakdown of heart muscles due to anorexia. Anorexia leads to the breakdown of body muscles among them being the heart muscle. As the heart muscle reduces, the heart gets smaller and weaker. This leads to the reduction of blood pressure and the pulse rate reduces too. (Shepherd and Alison Anne,1263)

Cholesterol in the blood as an indicator of the risk of coronary heart disease. Coronary heart illness is a disorder related to the heart and the vessels. It usually occurs due to deposition of fats in the blood veins making them harden and also narrow. Hyperlipidemia is the primary cause hence an indicator of this disease. (Niinivirta, Katri, et al.,123)

Determination of energy content of food by combustion. The energy or rather caloric content of food is measured in either calories and kilojoules. This energy level can be examined by burning a portion of it and capturing the heat released to a known amount of water. The temperature rise in water is then recorded. The change in temperature is converted into the heat absorbed. The final answer is changed to kilojoules. Another way is where the initial mass of the food substance is recorded and subtracted from the final weight. The difference is then calculated and converted into kilojoules.( Langley-Evans, S C.,88)

Use of database of the nutritional content of foods and software to calculate intakes of essential nutrients from a daily diet. The first step in calculating the daily nutrition intake is first to c the basal metabolic rate (BMR) of a person. For men the BMR is calculated by the following formula: 66.47+(13.7*W)+(5.0+H)-(6.75*A)

For women: 66.9+(9.56P*W)+(1.84*H)-(4.67*A)

after that one has to calculate his/her total nutrients by multiplying the BMR by the activity level as follows:

Sedentary lifestyle is 1.

lightly active 1.375

moderately active 1.55

very active 1.725

extractive 1.9

For calories, the daily requirements are

10 calories per kg body weight for women

11 calories per kg body weight for men

For proteins, the daily requirements are 0.8-1g per ideal body weight.

Carbohydrates should provide up to 60% of the total caloric intake while fats should not provide more than 30% of the total consumption. (Niinivirta, Katri, et al.,234)

Falsification of theories with one theory being superseded by another- scurvy was thought to be unique to humans because attempts to induce symptoms in the laboratory rats and mice were entirely unsuccessful. Scurvy is an ailment triggered by lack of vitamin C. Humans, and some animals require vitamin c in their diets. Studies have proved that scurvy does not occur in most animals because of their capability to make their vitamin C. Human and most primates lack the essential enzyme that is necessary for the synthesis of vitamin C and should be necessarily provided in the diet. In the beginning, it was thought that the disease was unique to humans until it was again found out that not all animals can synthesize it. This species, therefore, need vitamin C in their diet. (Meehan, Edward C., and Jens Walter,87)

WORK CITED

"Balanced Diet." FDA Consumer 20.8 (1986): 22. Health Source - Consumer Edition

"Vitamins And Minerals. What You Should Know About Essential Nutrients." Mayo Clinic Women's Healthsource Suppl.(2009): 1-8

Batai, Ken, et al. "Race And BMI Modify Associations Of Calcium And Vitamin D Intake With Prostate Cancer." BMC Cancer 17.(2017): 1-14.

Meehan, Edward C., and Jens Walter. "The Fiber Gap And The Disappearing Gut Microbiome: Implications For Human Nutrition." Trends In Endocrinology & Metabolism 27.5 (2016): 239-242

Langley-Evans, S C. "Publishing In The Journal Of Human Nutrition And Dietetics: Tougher But More Rewarding." Journal Of Human Nutrition And Dietetics: The Official Journal Of The British Dietetic Association 27.4 (2014): 309-310.

Niinivirta, Katri, et al. "Maternal Dietary Counseling During Pregnancy And Infant Fatty Acid Profiles." International Journal Of Food Sciences & Nutrition 65.3 (2014): 268-272.

Reid, Ian R, Mark Bolland, and Andrew Grey. "Effects Of Vitamin D Supplements On Bone Mineral Density: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis." Lancet 383.9912 (2014): 146-155.

Shepherd, Alison Anne. "Nutrition Through The Life-Span. Part 1: Preconception, Pregnancy, And Infancy. (Cover Story)." British Journal Of Nursing 17.20 (2008): 1261-1268. Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition. Web

Soni, Madhu G., et al. "Safety Of Vitamins And Minerals: Controversies And Perspective." Toxicological Sciences 118.2 (20...

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