Psychology demands that an individual needs to be comfortable and feel not judged to be free to talk even in the case of an interview. The interview is, therefore, a process that will need the client to be calm and composed. In preparation for the process, I will need to get as much information about the interviewee as possible including the name, occupation, age, profession, and his social and financial situation. Planning for the interview will include an understanding of its purpose, gathering as much information as possible concerning the incident. It will also require coming up with goals and objectives for the interview, recognition and understanding of the points I will need to prove, assessing the available evidence and its source, evaluating the required evidence and how to obtain it and an understanding of the guidelines and considerations necessary for the interview.
As the interviewer, I will need to create rapport with the interviewee. Research shows that creation of rapport is a significant determinant in whether an individual confesses or even talking to tribunal investigators or the court (Vanderhallen & Vervaeke, 2014). Bob needs to feel that he is in an environment that he will not encounter any form of judgment and this will require that I show Bob the three core conditions including genuineness, empathy, and unconditional positive regard. Other people will view him as a criminal, but I will need to show Bob that he is a person like anyone else. My introduction and how I explain the process to him will determine how he opens up.
He needs to know the purpose of the interview so that he gives the appropriate information. As the interviewer, I will need to have the right questions to ask him concerning the case at hand. I need as much information from him as possible, and therefore the right questions will be useful in getting Bob to talk to me. These may be the use of both free recall and open questions to ensure that all aspects of the situation are covered (Vanderhallen & Vervaeke, 2014). I will make sure that I allow the free flow of thoughts as he talks I will also encourage him to think about every circumstance surrounding the event. I will also help Bob to report everything concerning the event even those he views to be minor or unimportant.
Active listening is essential for the interview. It involves giving feedback, repeating or restating what the interviewee is saying and the use of verbal cues (Abbe & Brandon, 2014). As I interact and listen to Bob, he needs to feel that I am listening to the account he is giving. It will involve me giving feedback to what he is saying. My non-verbal communication will be an appropriate way of showing him that I am listening. Nodding my head in response to what he is saying, keeping the proper eye contact and leaning forward towards him will be how I show my active listening. Effective listening will also require that I use verbal cues like tell me more,' I see,' mm-hmm and much more. Restating and paraphrasing what he says will also be effective in showing Bob that I am listening to what he is saying.
Challenging the employees lack of cooperation, truthfulness or unwillingness will involve various skills to ensure the interview in successful. One will be reminding the employee of the importance and magnitude his statement or statement has to the case or event. He needs to take responsibility for his actions and accountability in the event. I will, therefore, ensure he does this through what he brings to the interview which is all he knows about the incident. He needs to get a reassurance of his importance to the case and what his statement means for the whole situation. One will be challenging his lack of cooperation using the available evidence and how it points to him. He needs to know the reason for his involvement in the interview and for him to be interviewed is an indication that the available evidence indicates to him to some extent. By reminding him of his connection to the event, Bob will have no option but to talk. In most instances, he would deny any connection to the case, and this could act as a starting point for the interview. I will also change the unwilling and untruthful employee with information from witnesses. The case will have accounts provided by witnesses, and if the employee is in the interview, it means that the confessions somehow link him to the event. Therefore statements from various individuals concerning what he did will challenge his un-cooperation and any lies that he tells.
He will need to understand that honesty and cooperation are for his benefit. There are consequences to whatever event went on and being a suspect if proven guilty he is likely going to face these consequences. The above skills will be helpful in dealing with un-cooperation with the employee or even encourage him to give as much information during the interview as possible. However, the rapport created during the initial stages of the interview will also assist in addressing the uncooperative, unwilling and untruthful employee.
The process involves both verbal and non-verbal communication from the interviewee. As it is communication is a significant part of the interview, and it is the only way through which gathering of information from the respondent will occur. Both forms of communication will also be essential in determining whether Bob is telling the truth or if he is lying. According to research various social scientists identify that different aspects of the interviewee including voice tone, eye movements, and pausing in speech are types of body language. The positioning of the body, silence, facial expression and much more are various types of body language, or non-verbal communication one needs to look out for during an interview (Schollum, 2005). The non-verbal communication is significant in confirming, obscuring or contradicting what the interviewee is communicating. As an interviewer, I have the ability to the underlying and unconscious mechanisms that will aid in evaluating both the non-verbal communication and the information he is bringing forward.
Research shows that less than ten percent of what an individual is trying to communication is often through verbal communication, thirty to forty percent is often through the tone of the voice while fifty-five to sixty-five percent in often through non-verbal communication (Schollum, 2005). Therefore it will be essential for me to identify and interpret the non-verbal communication. I will need to recognize or understand this type of the communication through the kind of posture he takes during the interview, any movement he makes, the sort of gesture Bob brings out during the process, the type of eye contact he has or the various facial expressions. For verbal communication restating what the client says will help with getting clarity of what he is trying to say. Paraphrasing or asking for the meaning of various words that I may not understand, will assist in interpreting the information.
Active listening will also be helpful in ensuring that I can understand the verbal communication quickly. Non-verbal communication will need that I am conversant with the various interpretations behind different cues the respondent gives (Schollum, 2005). For example not maintaining eye contact with the interviewer will mean that the interviewee is trying to hide some information from me. Facial expressions like a smile or a grin will be an indicating factor of whether what Bob is saying is congruent with what he feels or what he is thinking. The movements he makes during the interview will tell me whether he is saying something that he is comfortable with or not. All these non-verbal communications will be essential in identifying what Bob is not saying which is most of what will be critical to getting as much information from the process as possible.
Considering that Bob is a resistant client rapport will be essential for dealing with this aspect in him. Resistance may be due to various reasons including that he is afraid of saying something that will embarrass him. It shows that Bob is afraid of judgment and intimidation as a result of what Bob says. Therefore rapport will be a tool that helps Bob feel comfortable because he can develop trust in me as the interviewer. By developing trust, Bob will feel comfortable and free to express himself including information that he believes will embarrass him.
It could be he is resistant because he is afraid of self-disclosure. He may be afraid of revealing his inner-self to a stranger. He could also be scared of the legal proceedings that may result from him talking. He may be afraid of the experience he will go through in the hands of the legal authorities or institutions and in such an instance he will opt for being quiet. It may also be that he is afraid of the financial costs that come with cooperation during the interview. If he cooperates, he will need to make any payments in case there were any damages which he may not have the ability to do.
To deal with resistance, I will need to prepare in advance especially on issues that may cause resistance. Knowledge will help in identifying or bringing out the cause of resistance in Bob. Empathy will help address resistance in Bob because he will feel accepted and understood. Unconditional positive regard will also be helpful in treating resistance in the interviewee. UPR will give me a hand as the interviewer know Bob as a person and not view him as an offender. Typically many fingers point to him as the guilty one. By accepting him as a person, disclosure will be easier. Respect for Bob will also be a determinant in whether he cooperates or is resistant. Lack of respect will make him feel inferior which will be an indication to him that the information he gives may not be as relevant. However, he will be more comfortable in the interview and even in providing information because he feels wanted and important. The entire process will, however, depend on whether I create rapport and the beginning of the interview.
Abbe, A., & Brandon, S. E. (2014). Building and maintaining rapport in investigative interviews. Police Practice and Research, 15(3), 207-220.
Schollum, M. (2005). Investigative interviewing: The literature. Wellington: Office of the Commissioner of Police.
Vanderhallen, M., & Vervaeke, G. (2014). Between investigator and suspect: The role of the working alliance in investigative interviewing. In Investigative interviewing (pp. 63-90). Springer New York.
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