The authors have described in detail the sampling and recruitment techniques that were used in the study. The study design involved a phenomenographic approach in which researchers sought to determine participants different views regarding how they experience phenomena (Sjostrom & Dahlgren, 2002). Participants (patients) were recruited from a private medical facility and a public hospital. The researchers utilized the convenience sampling technique due to the nature of the study. Since the study required participants from a diverse population group, the researchers did not utilize purposive sampling or handpicking. The convenience strategy used in this study has been shown to be cost effective and require less time (Creswell & Plano, 2007).
The primary inclusion criterion was patients aged over 18 years and discharged without an overnight stay. The setting of the study was the patient's homes. 31 patients were recruited into the study (23 males and eight females). Considering a large number of patients undergoing surgery in hospitals each day, the sample size used in the current study was not adequate (Smith, 2004). Accordingly, the objective of saturation was not reached. Recruitment of patients from public and private facilities enhanced the richness of information and addressed the objectives of the study sufficiently.
Data Collection and Data Analysis
The researchers used semi-structured interviews to gather information from the patients. This technique was ideal for the study in that it facilitated a focused two-way conversation (Morse, 1991). During the interviews, the researchers adopted topical trajectories but with great flexibility to make the respondents more free to discuss any issues. Before the actual study, three pilot interviews were conducted to test participants willingness and ability to answer questions about the procedure and aims of the study. Information obtained during the pilot interviews were included in the analysis, and therefore, the pilots' interviews can be considered as an attempt to achieve data triangulation. Researchers collected and recorded all data. Therefore, there was no need to train data collectors. Based on the findings of the study, it can be assumed that all the data collected was relevant to the study.
The methods used to manage and analyze data have been described in great details. The researchers have stated that the management and coding of the data were based on the iterative procedure proposed by Dahlgren and Fallsberg (1991). This procedure requires that interviews be listened to keenly to gain familiarity with the content. The most important and relevant information was then selected and compared to establish patterns and variations. Similar statements made by the patients were grouped into categories for ease of analysis and description. The various categories of information were also compared and contrasted. The researchers did not establish clear boundaries between the various stages of data analysis, meaning that the analysis to go back and forth.
NVivo version 9 was used to analyze the data. It is a qualitative research software designed for organizing and analyzing non-numerical data. Overall, the data analysis strategy was compatible with the type and nature of the study and also the research traditions. The analysis yielded crucial information regarding the perceptions of surgical patients in post-operative recovery. The researchers have discussed the findings of their study in a manner that is not only objective but also reflective of the data and objectives of the study. The findings are consistent with those from previous studies such as Lewis, Stocker, Houghton and Montgomery (2009), Gilmartin (2004), Gilmartin (2007), and Wu, Berenholtz, Pronovost and Fleisher (2002). The high level of consistency is an indication that the findings of the current study are reliable and valid.
All ethical issues about the study have been discussed clearly. The participants obtained ethical approval from Regional Ethical Review Board. Participants consent was obtained during the initial pilot interview. The participants were informed of the purpose of the research and why it was necessary for them to be involved in the study. Important issues that were emphasized at the onset of the study include protection of confidential information and possibility of withdrawal from the study. Interview questions were framed to be comfortable and capable of reinforcing the participants' personal integrity. Given the various measures are taken to promote ethical standards, it can be concluded that the study was designed to maximize benefits and minimize risks to participants.
The article is well-written, and various aspects have been presented in a manner that is reflective of high standards of medical research. The article gives empirical evidence in a well-defined and concise manner making it easier to be read even by an audience with limited medical knowledge. The implications of the study have been discussed clearly and objectively. The findings of the current study can be used in the nursing profession, but more studies are necessary to develop more knowledge about the various perceptions of post-operative recovery.
Creswell, J. W., & Plano, C. L. (2007). Designing and conducting mixed methods research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Dahlgren, L., & Fallsberg, M. (1991). Phenomenography as a qualitative approach in social pharmacy research. Journal of Social and Administrative Pharmacy, 8(4), 150156.
Gilmartin, J. (2004). Day surgery: patients perceptions on a nurse-led preadmission clinic. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 13, 243250.
Gilmartin, J. (2007). Contemporary day surgery: patients experience of discharge and recovery. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 16(6), 11091117.
Katarina, B., Kristofer, A., & Karin, K. (2013). Postoperative recovery from the perspective of day surgery patients: A phenomenographic study. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 50, 16301638
Lewis, S., Stocker, M., Houghton, K., & Montgomery, J. (2009). A patient survey to determine how day surgery patients would like preoperative assessment to be conducted. The Journal of One Day Surgery, 19(2), 3236.
Morse, J. M. (1991). Approaches to qualitative-quantitative methodological triangulation. Nursing Research, 40, 120123.
Sjostrom, B., & Dahlgren, L. (2002). Applying phenomenography in nursing research. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 40(3), 339345.
Smith, L. (2004). Decolonizing methodologies: Research and indigenous peoples. London: Zed Books.
Wu, C., Berenholtz, M., Pronovost, J., & Fleisher, L. (2002). Systematic review and analysis of postdischarge symptoms after outpatient surgery. Anesthesiology, 96(4), 9941003.
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