Globalization & Talent Retention: Challenges in Education - Essay Sample

Paper Type: 
Pages:  6
Wordcount:  1628 Words
Date:  2023-08-17


According to Katusiime (2018), globalization continues to demand improved and competitive market strategies in any organization and institution that intends to have a long-lasting market position. For a company to retain a competitive market position, employees' input, motivation, and productivity become paramount. Due to globalization talent, retention, especially in educational institutions, has become a challenge. According to Robyn and Du Preez (2013), higher learning institutions are in constant fear of losing their most skilled employees, especially in African countries where skilled employees are scarce to acquire. In Africa, the demand for highly skilled personnel is greater than the supply. Hence, institutions are forced to offer their employees the best of resources, training, and policies to retain them (Robyn & Du Preez, 2013). Employers have realized the value of employees and the damage they can cause in case of constant turnover cases; therefore, employers are investing multiple resources to foster workers' wellbeing (Allen, 2008). To keep employees' welfare in check and line with institution set objectives, a human resource team is forged. According to Hanaysha and Hussain (2018), the human resource team's role is to ensure the company goals are met through improved employee productivity, motivation, and commitment and by maintaining close and integrated working relations across all institution departments. It is also the role of the human resource department to ensure an institution maintains low employee turnover.

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According to Hanaysha & Hussain (2018), employee productivity is the number of products and services individual produce within a given period without compromising quality. Commitment to work is a force that binds an employee to a relevant course of action towards the achievement of a target (Meyer, 2014). Employee turnover intention refers to the plan of the employees to leave the job they currently hold. The employees may intend to leave the job voluntarily when they have a better opportunity to explore. They may involuntarily go when their employers are dissatisfied with their work in the organization (Saeed et al., 2014). High employee turnover can significantly affect the services offered to the clients in an organization (Alkhateri et al., 2018). Motivation is a drive that makes employees engage their efforts towards the work that they are doing (Shahzadi et al., 2014). Employees may get driven by intrinsic or extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation is where an employee performs a task because it is rewarding to them. In contrast, in extrinsic motivation, the employee performs a job because they earn something from doing it, or they are likely to face some form of punishment if they do not complete the task (Legault, 2016). In an organizational setting, the most common motivation is extrinsic motivation, where employees perform their duties to get salaries or promotions in their workplace. Motivation has been found to increase employees' performance because they seek to be rewarded for their hard work (Saeed et al., 2014).

Problem Statement

Due to the high market competition for the scarce skilled employees in Africa, the Catholic University of Bukavu aims to identify challenges facing its staff, resulting in increased cases of employee turnover (Robyn, & Du Preez, 2013). Increased employee workloads, employee burnout, and poorly developed attitudes towards university work are identifiable challenges facing employees. Burnout and negative attitudes contribute to decreased commitment to the work and facilitate employees' turnover intentions, where they feel the need to leave the job for better alternatives. The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of employee motivation on work commitment and turnover intention of the employees of the Catholic University of Bukavu.

Research Objectives

  • To study the contribution of employee motivation on work commitment
  • To evaluate the effects of employee motivation on turnover intention


  • H1. Employee motivation has no significant contribution to work commitment
  • H2. Employee motivation has no significant relation with employee turnover intention

Literature Review

Employee Motivation and Work Commitment

Individuals seek for jobs based on different reasons. Once they become employed, they are keen on fulfilling their intentions as well as those of the organization. In a study by Geldenhuys et al. (2014), the relationship between psychological meaningfulness and organizational commitment got investigated. The research findings showed that an increase in the meaningfulness of the job for the employees facilitated organizational commitment in them. Sohail et al. (2014) carried out a regression analysis for the relationship between job satisfaction and job commitment and found a positive correlation between the two variables. Job satisfaction was as a result of motivation, and the more motivated the employees were, the higher their job satisfaction.

Leadership in an organization can be a motivating or de-motivating factor for the employees. Naile and Selesho (2014) carried out a study to find out how leadership affected employee motivation. After analyzing transformational and autocratic leadership styles, it was established that the quality of leadership was a motivating factor in the work commitment of teachers in an academic institution. According to the findings, transformational leadership did not increase job satisfaction but was instrumental in growing employee engagement (Naile and Selesho, 2014). Tentama and Pranungsari (2016) also carried out a study in academic institutions and established that job motivation for teachers was more dominant in facilitating organizational commitment compared to job satisfaction. Determination can be described as useful, continuance, or normative. (Meyer, 2014). Al-Madi et al. (2017) conducted an extensive study where they assessed the relationship between employee motivation and the three variables of commitment. From the study, it got established that there was a significant impact on employee motivation on their work commitment. Many employees believe that compliments were their critical motivating factors (Nazir et al., 2016).

Employee Motivation and Turnover Intention

Employers or employees can facilitate employees' turnover intentions. The employer can fire the employee on the grounds of misconduct or for retrenchment purposes while the employee can decide to resign from their jobs to find greener pastures (Alkhateri et al., 2018). According to Long et al. (2013), Bonenberger (2014), and Gautam (2019), human resource practices like compensation, managing performance, training, and employee relations in small and medium enterprises, health facilities and in the banking industry, respectively, have a significant impact on the turnover intentions of the employees. Also, Saeed et al. (2014) attribute job satisfaction and performance as well as leader membership exchange as having a negative influence on employees' turnover intention.

Ă–zbaget al. (2014) focused on three motivating factors; skill variety, feedback, and autonomy in exploring the relationship between burnout and turnover intention. The findings revealed that the employees who experienced high levels of burnout were likely to leave their jobs. The results also indicated that there was no significant moderation effect relationship for the motivating job factors and turnover intention. Kim (2015) carried out an analysis that revealed that public service motivation contributed to turnover intention and emotional exhaustion, and burnout also had mediating effects on turnover intention. Kim (2018) also carried out a study that addressed burnout among employees, motivation, and turnover intention and found out that intrinsic motivation had a significant adverse effect on turnover intention and exhaustion, while extrinsic motivation only had a positive impact on burnout. The highest number of employees in today's workforce belongs in the Generation-Y group, and according to Parthiban and Mahfar (2019), the work motivation that the employees receive is moderate, but the turnover intention is high. Also, the three factors of motivation used for the study, interpersonal, nature of the job given, and compensation do not affect the turnover intentions of the Gen-Y employees, which is contrary to other studies that had got carried out previously.

Conceptual Framework

The research's conceptual framework shows the relationship between employee motivation, work commitment, and turnover intention. The independent variable, which is not affected by the other variables, is employee motivation, and it can get executed through compensation, promotions, words of affirmation, training, and interpersonal engagements. On the other hand, the dependent variables are work commitment and turnover intention, which depend on employee motivation to increase or decrease. According to Meyer (2014), engagement gets better expounded through the three-component model (TCM) where there is an affective commitment, normative commitment, and the obligation of an employee to remain in an organization and continuance commitment. Turnover intention can result from the employer (firing) or the employee (resigning).


This part presents the methods that will be used during this study. These will include the research design, study area, study population, sample size and sampling procedures, methods of data collection, instruments of data collection, fieldwork, data processing, and data analysis.

Research Design

In this research study, the researchers will use correlation study design and quantitative and qualitative research methods. The quantitative approach will be used for percentage representation of data. The qualitative approach will help get ideas from the school operators or the administration as per the study's time. The researchers then will use correlation research design to establish the relationship between employee motivation on work commitment and turnover intention in Catholic University of Bukavu, Bukavu, South-Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo

Study Population

The study will get carried out at the Catholic University of Bukavu, where 100 employees will be selected to participate. The study will involve the teaching staff and other support staff at the university.

Sampling Procedures

The participants will be selected through simple random sampling to avoid bias, and the participants will be entirely voluntary.

Data Collection Techniques

Data for the study will be collected using questionnaires, which will have both open and closed questions. The questionnaires will focus on employee motivation and how they receive the effects of their work commitment and turnover intention. The questionnaires will also have 5-point Likert-scales to assess the extremity of the situations the employees may have regarding the topic in question.

Data Analysis

Data analysis give a detailed overview of data collected, which include a discussion of data result followed by a discussion of the hypothesis. For easy analysis, presentation, and interpretation of data, the SPSS program will be used. Data analysis will help define whether the instruments used, such as ques...

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